The assignee for this patent, patent number 8621248, is
Reporters obtained the following quote from the background information supplied by the inventors: "Higher speed computers come with a cost--higher electrical consumption. For a small number of home PCs this extra power may be negligible when compared to the cost of running other electrical appliances in a household. However, in data center applications, where thousands or tens of thousands of microprocessors may be operated, electrical power consumption becomes important.
"In addition, the power consumed by a microprocessor is transformed into heat. A pair of microprocessors mounted on a single motherboard can draw 200-400 watts or more of power. If that power draw is multiplied by several thousand (or tens of thousands) to account for the computers in a data center, the potential for heat generation can be appreciated. Thus, not only must a data center operator pay for electricity to operate the computers, it must also pay to cool the computers. The cost of removing heat may be a major cost of operating large data centers.
"Large-scale Internet services require a computing infrastructure that can be described as a warehouse-sized computing system. The cost of building data center facilities having the capacity to deliver the power required by such a computing system can rival the recurring power consumption costs themselves."
In addition to obtaining background information on this patent, VerticalNews editors also obtained the inventors' summary information for this patent: "In one aspect, a data center includes a power distribution network having a power capacity, and a plurality of computers drawing power from the power distribution network. Each of the computers has a peak power draw. The power capacity is less than a maximum power draw defined by summing the peak power draw from each of the plurality of computers.
"Implementations may include one or more of the following. The peak power draw of a computer may be a power draw under a maximum utilization of a central processing unit of the computer. Each of the plurality of computers may run an application, and the peak power draw of a computer may be a maximum power draw exhibited by the computer while running the application. Different computers in the plurality of computers may run different applications, or may have different peak power draws. The plurality of computers may include at least 1000 computers, and the maximum power draw may be more than 5% greater than the power capacity. The plurality of computers may include at least 5000 computers, and the maximum power draw can be more than 7% greater than the power capacity, e.g., about 40% greater than the power capacity.
"In another aspect, a method of designing a data center includes determining a design power density, determining an oversubscription ratio, and determining a spatial layout of the data center using the design power density and the oversubscription ratio.
"Implementations may include one or more of the following. The facility may be constructed having the spatial layout. Determining the spatial layout may include determining a total length of one or more rows of racks of computers. Determining the total length may include dividing a power budget by the design power density and multiplying by the oversubscription ratio. Determining an oversubscription ratio may include calculating a ratio of peak power draw of a computer to peak power draw per computer of a plurality of computers.
"In another aspect, a method of designing a data center includes determining a design power density, the design power density being in units of power per unit length.
"Implementations may include one or more of the following. The facility may be constructed having a power carrying-capability meeting the design power density.
"In another aspect, a method of deploying computers into a data center includes calculating in a computer an expected peak power draw for a plurality of computers.
"Implementations may include one or more of the following. Calculating the expected power draw may include extrapolating a power draw
"In another aspect, a method of monitoring power load of a data center includes storing data representing peak power usage of a plurality of computers in the data center, collecting CPU utilization for at least a statistical sample of the plurality of computers, and calculating a power load of the plurality of computers from the CPU utilization and the peak power usage.
"In another aspect, a method of monitoring power load of a data center includes measuring a power usage of a cluster of the data center, measuring a power usage of a power distribution unit (PDU) of the data center, and measuring a power usage of at least one of a rack or a computer within a rack.
"In another aspect, a method of monitoring power load of a data center includes determining a power usage for each cluster, each power distribution unit and each rack, and comparing the power usage to a stored maximum power capacity of the cluster, power distribution unit or rack.
"Implementations may include one or more of the following. Performance of a plurality of computers may be adjusted if a determined power usage is within a threshold of the maximum power capacity. Adjusting performance may includes adjusting job allocation, adjusting job scheduling, adjusting a central processing unit execution frequency, or shutting down servers. Determining may include calculating the power usage from processor and/or other component utilization, or measuring the power usage.
"In another aspect, a method of controlling power usage in a data center includes generating a signal indicating that a power usage is within a threshold of a maximum power capacity, and in response to said signal, adjusting performance of a computer.
"Implementations may include one or more of the following. Adjusting performance may include one or more of adjusting job scheduling or adjusting a central processing unit execution frequency.
"In another aspect, a method of estimating peak power usage of a computing system having a CPU includes determining the components in the computing system, determining a peak power usage value for each component, and adding the peak power usage value for each component together to result in an actual peak power value.
"In another aspect, a method of modeling computer system power usage for a single system includes running a group of computing systems, wherein each computing system has a CPU, measuring total system power usage of the computing system, measuring CPU utilization of each computing system in the group, and determining a line fit to the system power to CPU utilization to create the model.
"In another aspect, a method of determining a number of computing systems that can be run in a data center includes determining a total power available, and selecting a number of computing systems based on the method of modeling and an estimated amount of CPU utilization over a given period.
"In another aspect, a method of running multiple computing systems to maximize a number of systems in use with the amount of power available includes selecting a first workload type, a second workload type and a third workload type, wherein the first workload type is a service with a high request throughput and large data processing requirements for each request, the second workload type is an Internet service and the third workload type is a service that runs offline batch jobs, determining a power usage for each of the first workload type, second workload type and third workload type, selecting a highest power usage value of the first workload type, second workload type and third workload type, and assigning a number of systems to run the first workload type, second workload type and third workload type based on the amount of power available and the highest power usage value.
"In another aspect, a method of safeguarding multiple computing systems in a datacenter includes selecting a value below an actual peak power, monitoring power usage of the multiple computing system during use, predicting future power usage based on requested tasks, determining whether the future power usage will exceed the value, and if the future power usage will exceed the value, implementing component-level power management control functions or descheduling tasks.
"In another aspect, a method of modeling to simulate potential for power and energy savings in a datacenter includes selecting a threshold CPU utilization rate, and for each computing machine having a CPU component in a group of computing machines that falls below the threshold CPU utilization rate, reducing the CPU component of total power and leaving power consumption of remaining components of the computing machine unchanged.
"In another aspect, a method of modeling non-peak power efficiency includes setting an idle power of each machine in a group of machines at about 10% of actual peak power, and corresponding power usage greater than idle as proportional to increased activity.
"Advantages can include one or more of the following. Additional computer equipment can be deployed in a data center within the same power budget with little risk of exceeding the power budget. Cost for excess power capacity of the power distribution equipment can be reduced. The risk of exceeding power budget can be evaluated before upgrading a data center facility with new equipment.
"The details of one or more embodiments are set forth in the accompanying drawings and the description below. Other features, objects, and advantages will be apparent from the description and drawings, and from the claims."
For more information, see this patent: Weber, Wolf-Dietrich; Fan, Xiaobo; Barroso,
Keywords for this news article include: Electronics,
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