By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at Health & Medicine Week -- Investigators discuss new findings in Nanoparticles. According to news reporting originating in Los Angeles, California, by NewsRx journalists, research stated, "Adjuvants based on aluminum salts (Alum) are commonly used in vaccines to boost the immune response against infectious agents. However, the detailed mechanism of how Alum enhances adaptive immunity and exerts its adjuvant immune effect remains unclear."
The news reporters obtained a quote from the research from the University of California, "Other than being comprised of micrometer-sized aggregates that include nanoscale particulates, Alum lacks specific physicochemical properties to explain activation of the innate immune system, including the mechanism by which aluminum-based adjuvants engage the NLRP3 inflammasome and IL-1 beta production. This is putatively one of the major mechanisms required for an adjuvant effect. Because we know that long aspect ratio nanomaterials trigger the NLRP3 inflammasome, we synthesized a library of aluminum oxyhydroxide (AIOOH) nanorods to determine whether control of the material shape and crystalline properties could be used to quantitatively assess NLRP3 inflammasome activation and linkage of the cellular response to the material's adjuvant activities in vivo. Using comparison to commercial Alum, we demonstrate that the crystallinity and surface hydroxyl group display of AlOOH nanoparticles quantitatively impact the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in human THP-1 myeloid cells or murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). Moreover, these in vitro effects were correlated with the immunopotentiation capabilities of the AlOOH nanorods in a murine OVA immunization model. These results demonstrate that shape, crystallinity, and hydroxyl content play an important role in NLRP3 inflammasome activation and are therefore useful for quantitative boosting of antigen-specific immune responses."
According to the news reporters, the research concluded: "These results show that the engineered design of aluminum-based adjuvants in combination with dendritic cell property activity analysis can be used to design more potent aluminum-based adjuvants."
For more information on this research see: Engineering an Effective Immune Adjuvant by Designed Control of Shape and Crystallinity of Aluminum Oxyhydroxide Nanoparticles. ACS Nano, 2013;7(12):10834-10849. ACS Nano can be contacted at: Amer Chemical Soc, 1155 16TH St, NW, Washington, DC 20036, USA. (American Chemical Society - www.acs.org; ACS Nano - www.pubs.acs.org/journal/ancac3)
Our news correspondents report that additional information may be obtained by contacting B.B. Sun, University of California, Dept. of Chem, Los Angeles, CA 90095, United States. Additional authors for this research include Z.X. Ji, Y.P. Liao, M.Y. Wang, X. Wang, J.Y. Dong, C.H. Chang, R.B. Li, H.Y. Zhang, A.E. Nel and T. Xia (see also Nanoparticles).
Keywords for this news article include: Antigen-Presenting Cells, Nanorod, Aluminum, California, Immunology, Los Angeles, Engineering, Light Metals, United States, Nanotechnology, Dendritic Cells, Emerging Technologies, North and Central America, Mononuclear Phagocyte System
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