News Column

Patent Application Titled "Measuring Circulating Therapeutic Antibody, Antigen and Antigen/Antibody Complexes Using Elisa Assays" Published Online

January 27, 2014



By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at Cancer Gene Therapy Week -- According to news reporting originating from Washington, D.C., by NewsRx journalists, a patent application by the inventors ALBITAR, Maher (Sugar Land, TX); KEATING, Michael J. (Houston, TX); MANSHOURI, Taghi (Houston, TX), filed on July 3, 2013, was made available online on January 16, 2014 (see also Board of Regents, The University of Texas System).

The assignee for this patent application is Board of Regents, The University of Texas System.

Reporters obtained the following quote from the background information supplied by the inventors: "A. Field of Invention

"The present invention relates to the field of immunology and hyperproliferative diseases. More particularly, the present invention relates to a method of detecting and monitoring a therapeutic antibody:antigen complex, soluble antigen, free therapeutic antibody and soluble total therapeutic antibody, wherein a patient has undergone at least one dose of immunotherapy. Yet further, the methods may be used to monitor or stage a hyperproliferative disease by measuring the levels of therapeutic antibody:antigen complexes, soluble antigens or soluble therapeutic antibodies.

"B. Description of the Related Art

"Clusters of differentiation (CD) have been established to define human leukocyte differentiation antigens (Bernanrd and Boumsell, 1984) by the comparison of reactivities of monoclonal antibodies directed against the differentiation antigens. These cell surface antigens serve as markers of cell lineage and distinguish populations of leukocytes with different functions, e.g., neutrophils and monocytes.

"Leukocyte cell surface antigens have enormous clinical application potential for the identification of leukocyte populations and their functional status (Krensky, 1985, Kung et al., 1984; Kung et al., 1983; Cosimi et al., Knowles et al., 1983; and Hoffman, 1984). For example, measuring the total numbers of T cells by surface markers has been useful for the characterization, diagnosis and classification of lymphoid malignancies (Greaves, et al., 1981) and viral infection associated with transplantation (Colvin, R. B et al., 1981), and AIDS (Gupta, 1986; Ebert et al., 1985).

"a) CD20

"CD20, also called B1 (Bp35), is a cell surface phosphoprotein detected on the surface of B-lymphocytes (Tedder and Schlossman, 1988; Warzynski et al., 1994; Algino et al. 1996). CD20 has a major role in the regulation of human B-cell activation, proliferation and differentiation (Golay et al., 1985; Tedder and Engel, 1994; Kehrl et al., 1994). It has been reported that CD20 is heavily phosphorylated in malignant B-cells and proliferating B-cells when compared to non-proliferating B-cells (Tedder and Schlossman, 1988). Based on sequence analysis, the CD20 molecule appears to have four transmembrane domains with n- and c-terminal domains in the cytoplasm (Kehrl, et al., 1994). The molecule appears to regulate transmembrane Ca.sup.++ conductance (Tedder and Engel, 1994). Antibodies directed towards the extracellular portion of CD20 appear to activate a tyrosine kinase pathway that modulates cell cycle progression by interaction with src-related kinases (Deans et al., 1995; Popoff et al. 1998; Hofmeister et al., 2000). Relocalization of CD20 into a detergent-insoluble membrane compartment upon binding to antibodies has also been reported (Deans et al., 1998). Several investigators have documented variations in the intensity of CD20 expression on the surface of malignant B-cells in different lymphoproliferative diseases (Almasri et al., 1992; Ginaldi et al., 1998). This is important in view of the success an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (Rituximab) in treating various B-cell malignancies (Maloney et al., 1999; Dimopoulous et al., 2000; Zinzani et al., 2000; Hainsworth, 2000; Keating et al., 2000; McLaughlin et al., 2000: Kuehnle et al., 2000). The reported structure of the CD20 molecule suggests that it is not secreted and is highly unlikely to be shed from the cell surface (Riley et al., 2000).

"b) CD52

"The CD52 antigen is a glycoprotein with a very short mature protein sequence consisting of 12 amino acids, but with a large carbohydrates domain (approximately 3 times the size of the protein domain) (Xia, M. Q. et al., 1993; Treumann, A. et al., 1995). CD52 is expressed on the surface of T- and B-lymphocytes, monocyte/macrophages, eosinophils and some hematopoietic progenitors (Rowan, W. et al., 1998; Elsner, J. et al., 1996; Taylor, M. L. et al., 2000; Gilleece, M. H. et al., 1993). CD52 is also expressed in the male reproductive tract, mainly in the epithelial lining cells of the distal epidermis, vas deferens, and seminal vesicles (Kirchhoff, C. et al., 1995; Kirchhoff, C. et al., 1993; Kirchhoff, C. 1996; Kirchhoff, C. et al., 1997; Kirchhoff, C., 1998; Kirchhoff, C. et al., 2000). CD52 is necessary for spermatozoa to preserve normal motility. It is shed into seminal plasma and then acquired by sperm cells to enable their passage through the genital tract, thus it is detectable on the surface of epididymal sperm and in the ejaculate, but not on either spermatogenetic cells or testicular spermatozoa. The protein core of the sperm and lymphocyte CD52 is identical--both are products of a single copy gene located on chromosome 1(1p36) (Tone, M. et al., 1999). However, N-linked carbohydrate side chains and the GPI-anchor structure are different. The physiological role of CD52 on lymphocytes is unclear.

"The Campath-1 family of monoclonal antibodies was originally generated by immunizing rats against human T-cells (Friend, P. J. et al., 1991). Later studies show that Campath-1 antibodies recognize CD52 (Xia, M. Q. et al., 1993; Xia, M. Q. et al., 1991; Hale, G. et al., 1990). Several forms, both IgG and IgM, were generated. The IgG1 form of Campath-1 was humanized and this agent, Campath-1H (Alemtuzumab), has recently been approved for the treatment of refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) Finkelstein, J. B. et al., 2001; Rawstron, A. C. et al., 2001; Riechmann, L. et al., 1988). The Campath-1 family of antibodies is also being used in vitro for lymphocyte depletion in allogeneic marrow grafts and is being investigated as immunomodulatory therapy in a variety of diseases (Moreau, T. et al., 1996; Matteson, E. L. et al., 1995; Lim, S. H. et al., 1993; Lockwood, C. M. et al., 1993; Lockwood, C. M., 1993; Lockwood, C. M. et al., 1996; Dick, A. D. et al., 2000; Hale, G. et al., 2000; Isaacs, J. D. et al., 1992; Lim, S. H. et al., 1993; Mehta, J. et al., 1997; Naparstek, E. et al., 1999; Naparstek, E. et al., 1995; Novitzky, N. et al., 1999; Or, R. et al., 1994).

"Antibodies against CD52 are believed to initiate killing of cells through antigen cross-linking (Hale, C. et al., 1996). As a result of this cross-linkage, several cytokines are released including tumor necrosis factor-.alpha., interferon .gamma. and interleukin (Elsner, J. et al., 1996; Wing, M. G. et al., 1996; Wing, M. G. et al., 1995). Cross-linking of CD52 by antibodies promotes apoptosis and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, which may count for the effectiveness of Campath-1H in treating patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (Rowan, W. et al., 1998; Rawstron, A. C. et al., 2001; Greenwood, J. et al., 1994; Xia, M. Q., et al., 1993). CD52 is expressed on the surface of neoplastic lymphocytes in patients with CLL, low-grade lymphomas and T-cell malignancies (Dyer, M. J., 1999; Dybjer, A. et al., 2000; Pawson, R. et al., 1997; Salisbury, J. R. et al., 1994; Matutes, E. 1998). Some cases of myeloid, monocytic and acute lymphoblastic leukemia also express CD52 (Belov, L. et al., 2001; Hale, G. et al., 1985). This wide expression of CD52 in a variety of hematological malignancies has led to increasing interest in using Campath-1H in treating these malignancies (Khorana, A. et al., 2001; Keating, M. J. 1999).

"CD52 is shed in the male productive system and the soluble molecules play an important role in preserving spermatozoa function (Kirchhoff, C., 1996; Yeung, C. H. et al., 1997; Yeung, C. H. et al., 2001). However, it is not known if CD52 is shed from hematopoietic cells and/or detectable in the circulation of patients with CLL.

"c) CD33

"CD33 is a member of the siglecs family which bind sialic acid. CD33 is restricted to the myelomonocytic lineage of cells. During maturation of myloid cells, the pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells give rise to progenitor cells that have a diminished self-renewal capacity and a greater degree of differentiation. During this development, normal myeloid cells express cell surface antigens, for example CD33. CD33 is present on maturing normal hematopoietic cells, however, normal hematopoietic stem cells lack this cell surface antigen. In addition to maturing normal hematopoietic cells, CD33 is also present on acute myelocytic leukemia (AML). Thus, this myeloid cell surface maker has become an attractive target for monoclonal antibody targeting. Yet further, anti-CD33 antibodies have also been used to deliver radiation or a cytotoxic agent directly to leukemic cells.

"Immunoassays are usually used to measure cell surface antigens. Typically, immunofluorescence using flow cytometry is the immunoassay of choice. However, other immunoassays may be used, for example enzyme linked immunosorbant assays (ELISA). This technique is based upon the special properties of antigen-antibody interactions with simple phase separations to produce powerful assays for detecting biological molecules.

"One well-known and highly specific ELISA is a sandwich ELISA. In this assay, the antibody is bound to the solid phase or support, which is then contacted with the sample being tested to extract the antigen from the sample by formation of a binary solid phase antibody:antigen complex. After a suitable incubation period, the solid support is washed to remove the residue of the fluid sample and then contacted with a solution containing a known quantity of labeled antibody.

"The methodology and instrumentation for the ELISA is simpler than that for immunofluorescence. Yet further, the ELISA and immunofluorescence assays are completely different assays. ELISA assays measure the protein (antigen) in the plasma/serum, which reflects the entire body. Surface immunofluorescent assays measure an antigen on the surface of individual cells and does not provide information on the amount of cells in the body. Thus, there are advantages in developing an ELISA assay to provide a measurement of the entire body."

In addition to obtaining background information on this patent application, NewsRx editors also obtained the inventors' summary information for this patent application: "It is, therefore, an objective of the present invention to provide methods for detecting or monitoring soluble leukocyte surface molecules, such as cell differentiation antigens or fragments thereof. Specifically, soluble surface antigen, antibody:antigen complexes and antibodies that are directed to cell differentiation antigens may be detected or monitored by using a modified sandwich ELISA technique. Also, soluble cell surface molecules as quantified using the modified sandwich ELISA technique can be used to monitor proliferation and cell volume in individuals with cancer or other hyperproliferation diseases due to any other process, such as inflammation or infection.

"In specific embodiments, the antibody:antigen complex is measured in a patient that has undergone at least one course, e.g., an injection, of immunotherapy with a therapeutic antibody. The therapeutic antibody may include, but is not limited to anti-CD20, anti-CD52 or anti-CD33. The antibody:antigen complex is measured by ELISA techniques and provides a determination of the efficacy of the antibody immunotherapy.

"Another aspect of the present invention includes a method of providing an immunotherapy to a patient comprising administering to the patient a therapeutic antibody and detecting the presence of a circulating antibody:antigen complex, total antibody, free antigen and free antibody. The therapeutic antibody binds to a soluble antigen, which is shed from the cell surface. It is envisioned that the antigen is CD20, CD52 and CD33. It is envisioned that these methods can be used to monitor the efficacy of antibody-based therapy.

"In further embodiments, the present invention provides methods for detecting or monitoring hyperproliferative diseases by measuring soluble leukocyte surface molecules, therapeutic antibodies, or antibody:antigen complexes. Specifically, a sample from a patient is obtained, the sample is contacted with a first monoclonal antibody, in which the antibody captures the complex; the complex is contacted with a labeled second antibody; and the labeled complex is measured. The first monoclonal antibody is bound to a solid surface. Yet further, the patient has undergone a course of immunotherapy with a therapeutic antibody in which the therapeutic antibody binds to a soluble circulating target antigen forming the complex.

"Hyperproliferative disease as used herein may be further defined as cancer. Yet further, cancer is further defined as a neoplasm. Exemplary neoplasms include, but are not limited to melanoma, non-small cell lung, small-cell lung, lung hepatocarcinoma, retinoblastoma, astrocytoma, gliobastoma, gum, tongue, leukemia, neuroblastoma, head, neck, breast, pancreatic, prostate, renal, bone, testicular, ovarian, mesothelioma, cervical, gastrointestinal, lymphoma, brain, colon, or bladder.

"It is also contemplated that hyperproliferative disease may be further defined as an autoimmune disease, for example, but not limited to Sjogren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, autoimmune thyroid disease, refractory ocular inflammatory disease, multiple sclerosis, Wegener's granulomatosis or infection.

"In specific embodiments, the present invention monitors, detects or stages a hematopoietic neoplasm. Exemplary hematopoietic neoplasms, include, but are not limited to chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, juvenile myelomonocyte leukemia, multiple myeloma, lymphoma, T-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia or prolymphocytic leukemia.

"Yet further, it is contemplated that the present invention may be used to determine tumor mass. Tumor mass may be determined using the modified sandwich ELISA of the present invention to measure the levels of soluble leukocyte cell surface antigens, soluble antibodies or soluble antibody:antigen complexes.

"The use of the word 'a' or 'an' when used in conjunction with the term 'comprising' in the claims and/or the specification may mean 'one,' but it is also consistent with the meaning of 'one or more,' 'at least one,' and 'one or more than one.'

"The foregoing has outlined rather broadly the features and technical advantages of the present invention in order that the detailed description of the invention that follows may be better understood. Additional features and advantages of the invention will be described hereinafter which form the subject of the claims of the invention. It should be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the conception and specific embodiment disclosed may be readily utilized as a basis for modifying or designing other structures for carrying out the same purposes of the present invention. It should also be realized by those skilled in the art that such equivalent constructions do not depart from the spirit and scope of the invention as set forth in the appended claims. The novel features which are believed to be characteristic of the invention, both as to its organization and method of operation, together with further objects and advantages will be better understood from the following description when considered in connection with the accompanying figures. It is to be expressly understood, however, that each of the figures is provided for the purpose of illustration and description only and is not intended as a definition of the limits of the present invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

"The following drawings form part of the present specification and are included to further demonstrate certain aspects of the present invention. The invention may be better understood by reference to one or more of these drawings in combination with the detailed description of specific embodiments presented herein.

"FIG. 1 shows a Western blot demonstrating levels of sCD20 in the plasma of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. Protein extract from normal peripheral blood mononuclear (MN) cells show no expression of CD20 while leukemic cells from patients with CLL (C) show the expected proteins with molecular weight of 33-36 KD. The plasma from normal individuals (NP) as well as from patients with CLL show the soluble CD20 (sCD20).

"FIG. 2 shows a Western blot demonstrating levels of sCD52 in the plasma of CLL patients. Protein extract from leukemic cells (C) show the expected proteins and the plasma from the same patient (P) show the soluble sCD52. CD52 is also detected in protein extract from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from normal individual (NC) as well as in normal plasma (NP).

"FIG. 3 shows higher levels of sCD20 in patients with CLL as compared with normal individuals.

"FIG. 4 illustrates the linearity of sCD52 determined by ELISA.

"FIG. 5 illustrates that CLL patients have higher levels of sCD52 as compared with normal individuals.

"FIG. 6 shows that the sCD20/Rituximab complexes increased with an increase in the levels of Rituximab.

"FIG. 7 shows the direct correlation between sCD20 levels and Rai staging.

"FIG. 8 shows a direct correlation between sCD20 levels and Binet staging.

"FIG. 9 shows the median survival of patients with high sCD20 compared to patients with low sCD20.

"FIG. 10 shows that the levels of sCD52 correlate with Rai staging.

"FIG. 11 shows the levels of sCD52 correlate with Binet staging.

"FIG. 12 illustrates that higher levels of sCD52 are detected in CLL patients with poor cytogenetics.

"FIG. 13 illustrates that higher levels of sCD52 are detected in patients with higher number of lymph node sites with enlarged lymph nodes.

"FIG. 14 illustrates that patients with high levels of sCD52 have a shorter survival than patients with low levels of sCD52.

"FIG. 15 shows the detection of the sCD52/Campath-1H complexes in a CLL patient being treated with Campath-1H for minimal residual. Levels of sCD52 are also shown."

For more information, see this patent application: ALBITAR, Maher; KEATING, Michael J.; MANSHOURI, Taghi. Measuring Circulating Therapeutic Antibody, Antigen and Antigen/Antibody Complexes Using Elisa Assays. Filed July 3, 2013 and posted January 16, 2014. Patent URL: http://appft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-adv.html&r=2262&p=46&f=G&l=50&d=PG01&S1=20140109.PD.&OS=PD/20140109&RS=PD/20140109

Keywords for this news article include: Antibody-Producing Cells, Antineoplastic Monoclonal Antibodies, Antirheumatics, Biotechnology, Drugs, Genetics, Oncology, Education, Neoplasms, Rituximab, Germ Cells, Hematology, Immunology, Blood Cells, CD Antigens, Spermatozoa, Therapeutics, CD20 Antigens, Hematopoietic, Immunotherapy, Blood Proteins, Cancer Vaccines.

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Source: Cancer Gene Therapy Week


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