By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at Pain & Central Nervous System Week -- New research on Glutamic Acid is the subject of a report. According to news reporting out of Bremen, Germany, by NewsRx editors, research stated, "The harmful effects of lunar dust (LD) on directly exposed tissues are documented in the literature, whereas researchers are only recently beginning to consider its effects on indirectly exposed tissues. During inhalation, nano-/microsized particles are efficiently deposited in nasal, tracheobronchial, and alveolar regions and transported to the central nervous system."
Our news journalists obtained a quote from the research from Jacobs University, "The neurotoxic potential of LD and martian dust (MD) has not yet been assessed. Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter involved in most aspects of normal brain function, whereas disturbances in glutamate homeostasis contribute to the pathogenesis of major neurological disorders. The research was focused on the analysis of the effects of LD/MD simulants (JSC-1a/JSC, derived from volcanic ash) on the key characteristics of glutamatergic neurotransmission. The average size of LD and MD particles (even minor fractions) before and after sonication was determined by dynamic light scattering. With the use of radiolabeled L-[C-14]glutamate, it was shown that there is an increase in L-[C-14]glutamate binding to isolated rat brain nerve terminals (synaptosomes) in low [Na+] media and at low temperature in the presence of LD. MD caused significantly lesser changes under the same conditions, whereas nanoparticles of magnetite had no effect at all. Fluorimetric experiments with potential-sensitive dye rhodamine 6G and pH-sensitive dye acridine orange showed that the potential of the plasma membrane of the nerve terminals and acidification of synaptic vesicles were not altered by LD/MD (and nanoparticles of magnetite). Thus, the unique effect of LD to increase glutamate binding to the nerve terminals was shown. This can have deleterious effects on extracellular glutamate homeostasis in the central nervous system and cause alterations in the ambient level of glutamate, which is extremely important for proper synaptic transmission."
According to the news editors, the research concluded: "During a long-term mission, a combination of constant irritation due to dust particles, inflammation, stress, low gravity and microgravity, radiation, UV, and so on may consequently change the effects of the dust and aggravate neurological consequences."
For more information on this research see: Neurotoxic Potential of Lunar and Martian Dust: Influence on Em, Proton Gradient, Active Transport, and Binding of Glutamate in Rat Brain Nerve Terminals. Astrobiology, 2013;13(8):679-692. Astrobiology can be contacted at: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc, 140 Huguenot Street, 3RD Fl, New Rochelle, NY 10801, USA. (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. - www.liebertpub.com; Astrobiology - www.liebertpub.com/overview/astrobiology/99/)
Our news journalists report that additional information may be obtained by contacting N. Krisanova, Jacobs Univ, Bremen, Germany. Additional authors for this research include L. Kasatkina, R. Sivko, A. Borysov, A. Nazarova, K. Slenzka and T. Borisova (see also Glutamic Acid).
Keywords for this news article include: Bremen, Europe, Germany, Glutamates, Nanoparticle, Glutamic Acid, Nanotechnology, Emerging Technologies
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