The patent's inventors are O'Hagan, Derek (
This patent was filed on
From the background information supplied by the inventors, news correspondents obtained the following quote: "Numerous vaccine formulations have been developed which include attenuated pathogens or subunit protein antigens. Conventional vaccine compositions often include immunological adjuvants to enhance cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. For example, depot adjuvants are frequently used which adsorb and/or precipitate administered antigens and which can retain the antigen at the injection site. Typical depot adjuvants include aluminum compounds and water-in-oil emulsions. However, depot adjuvants, although increasing antigenicity, often provoke severe persistent local reactions, such as granulomas, abscesses and scarring, when injected subcutaneously or intramuscularly. Other adjuvants, such as lipopolysachamides, can elicit pyrogenic responses upon injection and/or Reiter's symptoms (influenza-like symptoms, generalized joint discomfort and sometimes anterior uveitis; arthritis and urethritis). Saponins, such as Quillaja saponaria, have also been used as immunological adjuvants in vaccine compositions against a variety of diseases.
"Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) is a powerful immunostimulatory agent that has been successfully used with many antigens on an experimental basis. CFA includes three components: a mineral oil, an emulsifying agent, and killed mycobacteria, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although effective as an adjuvant, CF A causes severe side effects primarily due to the presence of the mycobacterial component, including pain, abscess formation and fever. CFA, therefore, is not used in human and veterinary vaccines.
"Incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) is similar to CFA but does not include the bacterial component. IFA, while not approved for use in
"Despite the presence of such adjuvants, conventional vaccines often fail to provide adequate protection against the targeted pathogen. In this regard, there is growing evidence that vaccination against intracellular pathogens, such as a number of viruses, should target both the cellular and humoral arms of the immune system. More particularly, cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) play an important role in cell-mediated immune defense against intracellular pathogens such as viruses and tumor-specific antigens produced by malignant cells. CTLs mediate cytotoxicity of virally infected cells by recognizing viral determinants in conjunction with class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules displayed by the infected cells. Cytoplasmic expression of proteins is a prerequisite for class I MHC processing and presentation of antigenic peptides to CTLs. However, immunization with killed or attenuated viruses often fails to produce the CTLs necessary to curb intracellular infection. Furthermore, conventional vaccination techniques against viruses displaying marked genetic heterogeneity and/or rapid mutation rates that facilitate selection of immune escape variants, such as HIV or influenza, are problematic. Accordingly, alternative techniques for vaccination have been developed.
Most Popular Stories
- American Airlines, US Airways Complete Merger
- ACA Delay Stresses Small Businesses
- Unemployed Wait as Lawmakers Debate
- Questions Remain in Jenni Rivera's Death
- General Dynamics Plans 200 New Jobs in N.M.
- Dell Offers Undisclosed Number of Employee Buyouts
- Saab Gets Back into the Game; U.S. Auto Sales Soar
- Harley Issues Motorcycle Recall
- Authorities Close to Deal with JPMorgan Chase over Madoff Response
- Auto Dealer Builds Big Solar Project