No assignee for patent application serial number 594234 has been made.
News editors obtained the following quote from the background information supplied by the inventors: "The left ventricle of the heart pumps cyclically to deliver oxygenated blood to the body via the aorta. The cyclic pumping of the left ventricle of the heart includes a systole stage and a diastole stage, depicted in FIGS. 1 and 2 respectively.
"During the systole stage, the left ventricle 1 contracts, pumping blood to the aorta 2 through the aortic valve 3. Contraction of the left ventricle 1 increases the pressure in the aorta 2, causing the aorta 2 to expand, as depicted in FIG. 1 and as a continuous line in FIG. 3. The expansion absorbs some of the shock loading associated with ejection of blood from the left ventricle. At various points 4 along the aorta, the aorta wall may be subject to anatomical constraints restricting the ability of the aorta to expand. The systolic blood pressure is the maximum blood pressure in the aorta during the systole stage.
"During the diastole stage, the left ventricle 1 relaxes and the aortic valve 3 closes to stop back flow of blood into the left ventricle 1. The left atrium 5 contracts to fill the left ventricle 1 with further blood in preparation for the next systole stage. During the diastole stage, the blood pressure within the aorta 2 reduces to what is termed the diastolic blood pressure. The reduced pressure at this stage causes the wall of the aorta 2 to recoil (relax), restoring it back to its original diameter, as depicted in broken lines in FIG. 3. The blood is accordingly pumped through the aorta and into the arteries in a pulsating manner.
"The ability of the aorta 2 to expand and recoil during the systole and diastole stages is dependent upon the elasticity of the aorta wall which is a result of the elastin fibres present in the aorta wall.
"Systolic blood pressure progressively increases with ageing that begins in childhood until the eighth or ninth decade, whereas diastolic blood pressure tends to remain constant in the fifth or sixth decade but decreases thereafter. Consequently, the pulse pressure, being the pressure differential between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure, increases with ageing. This form of hypertension is termed isolated systolic hypertension and increases in frequency with increasing age.
"Various studies have shown that elevated systolic pressure is associated with a greater risk of heart failure, stroke, and acute myocardial infarction, and that treatment of elevated systolic pressure can delay or prevent such adverse events even when diastolic pressure is normal or low.
"A number of studies have also shown that, in patients over 50, there is a stronger association between adverse cardiovascular (particularly coronary) events and pulse pressure, than systolic or diastolic pressure in isolation. Accordingly, for any given systolic pressure, the diastolic pressure is inversely related to the risk of adverse cardiovascular events, possibly due to reduction in coronary perfusion with decreased diastolic pressure.
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