No assignee for patent application serial number 638199 has been made.
News editors obtained the following quote from the background information supplied by the inventors: "Schizophrenia is a psychiatric diagnosis that describes a mental disorder characterized by abnormalities in the perception or expression of reality. It most commonly manifests as auditory hallucinations, paranoid or bizarre delusions, or disorganized speech and thinking with significant social or occupational dysfunction. Onset of symptoms typically occurs in young adulthood, with approximately 0.4-0.6% of the population affected. Diagnosis is based on the patient's self-reported experiences and observed behavior. No laboratory test for schizophrenia currently exists.
"Studies suggest that genetics, early environment, neurobiology, psychological and social processes are important contributory factors, and some recreational and prescription drugs appear to cause or worsen symptoms. Current psychiatric research is focused on the role of neurobiology, but no single organic cause has been found. Due to the many possible combinations of symptoms, there is debate about whether the diagnosis represents a single disorder or a number of discrete syndromes.
"The disorder is thought to mainly affect cognition, but it also usually contributes to chronic problems with behavior and emotion. People with schizophrenia are likely to have additional (comorbid) conditions, including major depression and anxiety disorders. The lifetime occurrence of substance abuse is around 40%. Social problems, such as long-term unemployment, poverty and homelessness, are common. Furthermore, the average life expectancy of people with the disorder is 10 to 12 years less than those without, due to increased physical health problems and a higher suicide rate.
"An important utility of biomarkers for psychotic disorders is their response to medication. Administration of antipsychotics remains a subjective process, relying solely on the experience of clinicians. Furthermore, the development of antipsychotic drugs has been based on chance findings often with little relation to the background driving the observations.
"Schizophrenia is treated primarily with antipsychotic medications which are also referred to as neuroleptic drugs or neuroleptics. Newer antipsychotic agents such as clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine or risperidone are thought to be more effective in improving negative symptoms of psychotic disorders than older medication like chlorpromazine. Furthermore, they induce less extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) which are movement disorders resulting from antipsychotic treatment.
"The history of neuroleptics dates back to the late 19th century. The flourishing dye industry catalyzed development of new chemicals that lay the background to modern day atypical antipsychotics. Developments in anti-malaria, anti-histamine and anaesthetic compounds also produced various neuroleptics. The common phenomenon to all these processes is a fundamental lack of understanding of the biological mechanisms and pathways that these drugs affect, apart from the observation that they prominently block D2 receptors in the striatum.
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