The patent's assignee for patent number 8524907 is
News editors obtained the following quote from the background information supplied by the inventors: "This invention is directed to methods for synthesizing Factor Xa inhibitors as well as to the synthesis of the intermediates and maleate salt thereof.
"Hemostasis, the control of bleeding, occurs by surgical means, or by the physiological properties of vasoconstriction and coagulation. This invention is particularly concerned with blood coagulation and ways in which it assists in maintaining the integrity of mammalian circulation after injury, inflammation, disease, congenital defect, dysfunction, or other disruption. Although platelets and blood coagulation are both involved in restoring hemostasis and in thrombotic diseases, certain components of the coagulation cascade are primarily responsible for the amplification and acceleration of the processes involved in platelet aggregation and fibrin deposition which are major events in thrombosis and hemostasis.
"Clot formation involves the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin which polymerizes into a network to restore hemostasis after injury. A similar process results in occluded blood vessels in thrombotic diseases. The conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin is catalyzed by thrombin, the end product of a series of reactions in the blood coagulation cascade. Thrombin is also a key player in activating platelets, thereby contributing to thrombosis under conditions of both arterial and venous blood flow. For these reasons, it has been postulated that efficient regulation of thrombin can lead to efficient regulation of thrombosis. Several classes of currently used anticoagulants directly or indirectly affect thrombin (i.e. unfractionated heparins, low-molecular weight heparins, heparin-like compounds, pentasaccharide and warfarin). Direct or indirect inhibition of thrombin activity has also been the focus of a variety of anticoagulants in clinical development (reviewed by Eriksson and Quinlan, Drugs 11: 1411-1429, 2006).
"Prothrombin, the precursor for thrombin, is converted to the active enzyme by Factor Xa. Localized activation of tissue factor/Factor VIIa mediated Factor Xa generation is amplified by the Factor IXa/Factor VIIIa complex and leads to prothrombinase assembly on activated platelets. Factor Xa, as a part of the prothrombinase complex, is the sole enzyme responsible for sustained thrombin formation in the vasculature. Factor Xa is a serine protease, the activated form of its precursor Factor X, and a member of the calcium ion binding, gamma carboxyglutamic acid (GLA)-containing, vitamin K dependent, and blood coagulation factors. Unlike thrombin, which acts on a variety of protein substrates including fibrinogen and the PAR receptors (Protease activated receptors, Coughlin, J Thrombosis Haemostasis 3: 1800-1814, 2005), Factor Xa appears to have a single physiologic substrate, namely prothrombin. Since one molecule of Factor Xa may be able to generate greater than 1000 molecules of thrombin (Mann, et al., J. Thrombosis. Haemostasis 1: 1504-1514, 2003), direct inhibition of Factor Xa as a way of indirectly inhibiting the formation of thrombin may be an efficient anticoagulant strategy. This assertion is based on the key role of prothrombinase in thrombin synthesis and on the fact that inhibition of prothrombinase will have a pronounced effect on the overall platelet aggregation and clotting pathways.
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