No assignee for this patent application, patent application serial number 830211, has been made.
Reporters obtained the following quote from the background information supplied by the inventors: "This section provides background information related to the present disclosure which is not necessarily prior art.
"Pulmonary hypertension (PH) has been previously classified as primary (idiopathic) or secondary. Recently, the
"Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a serious, progressive and life-threatening disease of the pulmonary vasculature, characterized by profound vasoconstriction and an abnormal proliferation of smooth muscle cells in the walls of the pulmonary arteries. Severe constriction of the blood vessels in the lungs leads to very high pulmonary arterial pressures. These high pressures make it difficult for the heart to pump blood through the lungs to be oxygenated. Patients with PAH suffer from extreme shortness of breath as the heart struggles to pump against these high pressures. Patients with PAH typically develop significant increases in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and sustained elevations in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), which ultimately lead to right ventricular failure and death. Patients diagnosed with PAH have a poor prognosis and equally compromised quality of life, with a mean life expectancy of 2 to 5 years from the time of diagnosis if untreated.
"Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is the primary member of a family of potent vasoconstrictor peptides, which are known to play an essential role in mammalian cardiovascular physiology. ET-1 is synthesized de novo and released from endothelial cells in response to a variety of factors, including angiotensin II, catecholamines, cytokines, hypoxia and shear stress. Two receptor subtypes, endothelin receptor type A (ET.sub.A) and endothelin receptor type B (ET.sub.B), mediate the effects of ET-1. In humans, the ET.sub.A receptor is preferentially expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells and is primarily responsible for the vasoconstrictive effects of ET-1. In contrast, ET.sub.B receptors are found mainly in the vascular endothelium, and their activation results in vasodilatation via production of nitric oxide and prostacyclin. The ET.sub.B receptor is also involved in regulation of circulating concentrations of ET-1, through effects on endothelin converting enzyme (ECE-1) expression, and the synthesis and reuptake of ET-1 by endothelial cells.
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