No assignee for this patent application, patent application serial number 862677, has been made.
Reporters obtained the following quote from the background information supplied by the inventors: "The era of plasticity began with the publication of a manuscript entitled 'Turning brain into blood: a hematopoietic fate adopted by adult neural stem cells in vivo' by Bjornson and colleagues (1). They pursued a hypothesis based on observations made by Valtz et al. who showed the ability of a single neuroectodermal cell (from rat cerebellar cell line ST15A) to form neuronal, glial, and muscle cells (2). A deluge of plasticity papers has since followed.
"Initially, there were reports of cells from muscle giving rise to hematopoiesis (3) and then a variety of reports of marrow-derived cells giving rise to muscle (4-6), hepatocytes (7-9) and cardiac myocytes (10, 11). This suggested that hierarchical plasticity is the rule and that the local microenvironment determines the choice of differentiation pathways.
"While most of these studies have been done with whole cell populations, several experimental designs have used highly purified hematopoietic marrow stem cells, showing that hepatocytes and myocardial myocytes could arise from these cells. However, even in this instance, the results did not address the question of whether the repopulating cells were cells with both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic potential or whether there coexisted separate lineage-defined stem cells in the purified population experimentally obtained. Work from Verfaille and colleagues provides support for the concept of multiple stem cell types residing in the marrow. In their in vitro studies, they found a class of stem cells which can give rise to neural, mesenchymal, muscle and fat cells, but not to hematopoietic lineages. The question of origin can only be answered with clonal population studies. One such study, using limiting dilution techniques, has been reported and indicates clonal origin of many nonhematopoietic cell types from purified marrow hematopoietic stem cells (12).
"Another unresolved issue is whether the hematopoietic potential demonstrated in nonhematopoietic tissue arose from nonhematopoietic tissue stem cells or hematopoietic stem cells, which coexisted in the nonhematopoietic tissue. The initial reports of muscle cells generating hematopoiesis implied that muscle stem cells were responsible. However, recent work from
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