No assignee for this patent application, patent application serial number 403790, has been made.
Reporters obtained the following quote from the background information supplied by the inventors: "Between 100,000 to 300,000 Americans die annually from pulmonary embolism (PE)--more than breast cancer and AIDS combined--representing the 3rd leading cause of death in the US [1-5]. A similar incidence of PE is found in
"The US Surgeon General has recognized this alarming statistic and in 2008 issued a formal Call to Action to Prevent DVT and PE . Unfortunately, DVT/PE disproportionately affects the elderly, in part due to prolonged periods of inactivity following medical treatment. The incidence is relatively low under the age of 50 (1/100,000), then accelerates exponentially reaching 1000/100,000 by the age of 85 . Consequently the US Surgeon General has proclaimed that the growth in number of DVT/PE cases with an aging US population may outpace the population growth in the absence of better prevention .
"Risk factors for PE arising from DVT follow Virchow's Triad : (i) endothelial injury, (ii) hypercoaguability, and (iii) hemodynamic changes (stasis or turbulence). Hence specific risk factors include hip and knee arthroplasty, abdominal, pelvic and extremity surgeries, pelvic and long bone fractures, prolonged immobility such as prolonged hospital stays and air travel, paralysis, advanced age, prior DVT, cancer, obesity, COPD, diabetes and CHF. Orthopedic surgeons are especially concerned since their patients carry a 40%-80% risk for DVT and PE following knee and hip surgeries in the absence of prophylactic treatment [10-12].
"Aspirin has a 29% relative risk reduction in symptomatic DVT and a 58% relative risk reduction in fatal PE . LMWH carries a 30% risk reduction in DVT and has been proven more effective than unfractionated heparin in high risk groups such as hip and knee arthroplasty . Warfarin started within 24 to 48 hours of initiating heparin with a goal of achieving international normalized ratio (INR) results between 2 and 3 as secondary thromboprophylaxis for 3 months reduces the risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) by 90% as compared with placebo [15,16]. Mechanical prophylaxis, consisting of pneumatic compression devices that repeatedly compress the legs with an air bladder, are also utilized in conjunction with anticoagulants to reduce the occurrence of PE.
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