Patent application serial number 773857 has not been assigned to a company or institution.
The following quote was obtained by the news editors from the background information supplied by the inventors: "Prostate cancer (PC) is an entity that encompasses different types of tumors (adenocarcinomas (95%) and non-adenocarcinomas (5%)). Adenocarcinomas and non-adenocarcinomas respond to, and therefore should be treated with, different treatments. Even within the adenocarcinomas, the lethality of the tumors is highly variable, from low risk/indolent/non-life-threatening to high risk/lethal; the latter category make PC the third most common cause of cancer deaths in men. The current inability to predict the behavior of a particular patient's cancer renders treatment decisions difficult, and highly inexact. It leads to over-treatment of the large number of patients whose PC is not life-threatening. Those over-treated patients suffer compromise in their quality of life from treatment that provides no benefit to that patient. Conversely, if a patient who has a lethal form of prostate cancer is under-treated in an effort to avoid side effects, the end result may be death. What is needed is a way to distinguish adenocarcinomas from non-adenocarcinomas and lethal from indolent PC. Ideally, this could be done non-invasively and could survey the entire prostate gland and/or the entire body. This would be in contrast with the current prostate biopsy approach which is invasive, entails complications of its own, and samples only a very small part of the entire prostate gland."
In addition to the background information obtained for this patent application, NewsRx journalists also obtained the inventors' summary information for this patent application: "PSMA is a Biomarker for Prostate Adenocarcinomas
"The expression of PSMA is tightly linked to that of the androgen receptor (AR). Prostate adenocarcinomas are AR.sup.+/PSMA.sup.+; non-adenocarcinoma variants (e.g., small cell, neuroendocrine, sarcoma, etc.) make up a minority of all prostate cancers and have a phenotype of AR-/PSMA-. Somewhat commonly, non-adenocarcinomas derive from adenocarcinomas and these can manifest a mixed phenotype including both AR.sup.+/PSMA.sup.+ and AR.sup.-/PSMA.sup.- cells. While the backbone of treatment of adenocarcinomas is hormonal therapy followed by taxane-based chemotherapy, non-adenocarcinomas do not respond to hormonal therapy and are treated instead with platinum-based chemotherapy.
"High PSMA is a Molecular Hallmark of Lethal Prostate Adenocarcinoma
"Archived biopsy or surgical specimens from patients obtained years earlier at the time of their diagnosis were obtained to measure PSMA levels in prostate cancers (PC). Surprisingly, in patients with lethal prostate cancer, 63 of 66 (95%) patients with lethal PC had very high levels of PSMA at the time of diagnosis--years before developing metastatic or castrate-resistant PC (CRPC). This result was surprising because it has been long thought that PSMA levels begin relatively low and increase over time as the disease progresses--i.e., with respect to PSMA levels, localized PC
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