The patent's assignee for patent application serial number 661962 is
News editors obtained the following quote from the background information supplied by the inventors: "Connectors for coaxial cables are typically connected to complementary interface ports or corresponding connectors to electrically integrate coaxial cables to various electronic devices, including ports on cell towers. Coaxial cable typically includes an inner conductor, an insulating layer surrounding the inner conductor, an outer conductor surrounding the insulating layer, and a protective jacket surrounding the outer conductor. Each type of coaxial cable has a characteristic impedance which is the opposition to signal flow in the coaxial cable. The impedance of a coaxial cable depends on its dimensions and the materials used in its manufacture. For example, a coaxial cable can be tuned to a specific impedance by controlling the diameters of the inner and outer conductors and the dielectric constant of the insulating layer. All of the components of a coaxial system should have the same impedance in order to reduce internal reflections at connections between components. Such reflections increase signal loss and can result in the reflected signal reaching a receiver with a slight delay from the original.
"Two sections of a coaxial cable in which it can be difficult to maintain a consistent impedance are the terminal sections on either end of the cable to which connectors are attached. For example, the attachment of some field-installable compression connectors requires the removal of a section of the insulating layer at the terminal end of the coaxial cable in order to insert a support structure of the compression connector between the inner conductor and the outer conductor. The support structure of the compression connector can prevent the collapse of the outer conductor when the compression connector applies pressure to the outside of the outer conductor. Unfortunately, however, the dielectric constant of the support structure often differs from the dielectric constant of the insulating layer that the support structure replaces, which changes the impedance of the terminal ends of the coaxial cable. This change in the impedance at the terminal ends of the coaxial cable causes increased internal reflections, which results in increased signal loss.
"Another difficulty with field-installable connectors, such as compression connectors or screw-together connectors, is maintaining acceptable levels of passive intermodulation (PIM). PIM in the terminal sections of a coaxial cable can result from nonlinear and insecure contact between surfaces of various components of the connector. A nonlinear contact between two or more of these surfaces can cause micro arcing or corona discharge between the surfaces, which can result in the creation of interfering RF signals. For example, some screw-together connectors are designed such that the contact force between the connector and the outer conductor is dependent on a continuing axial holding force of threaded components of the connector. Over time, the threaded components of the connector can inadvertently separate, thus resulting in nonlinear and insecure contact between the connector and the outer conductor.
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