The crowd got involved in space exploration.
While Nasa is still at the forefront of space innovation, this year marked the first that the crowd became actively involved in the future of deep space exploration. After launching in April, the MarsOne project quickly signed up over 100 000 people worldwide for the chance to take a one-way mission to Mars.
According to the MarsOne organisers, the crowd would also play a role by selecting the four people chosen to become Mars astronauts in 2022 via a reality TV show, and part of those application fees ($38 a pop) would go towards funding the mission to Mars. In other words, you no longer have to be a professional astronaut to go to outer space.
And that's not all. To put the new Arkyd deep space telescope into operation, asteroid-mining firm Planetary Resources created a $1 million crowdfunding project on Kickstarter, with one perk at the |$25 funding level being the ability to send a "space selfie" into outer space. The project, touted as "a space telescope for everyone," ended up being wildly over-subscribed, raising just over $1.5m. Based on the success of this crowdfunding venture, Nasa unveiled a new asteroid-detection project in partnership with Planetary Resources that would rely on the crowd for the detection of potential asteroid threats.
Wearable technology finally went mainstream with smart watches.
The concept of the smart watch had been percolating for years, but this year was the first in which commercial products actually hit the mainstream. The Pebble smart watch, which raised $10m on Kickstarter in 2012, finally debuted in stores this year. Apple began floating rumours of an iWatch. In September, Samsung beat all the big tech names to market with the Samsung Galaxy Gear smart watch. In just over two months, Samsung reportedly sold over 800 000 units of its new smart watch.
The wearable tech market continues to wait for the commercially-available Google Glass product. We had hints of what to expect as early adopters began posting Google Glass videos on YouTube, developers leaked news of new apps for Google Glass, and Google Glass showed up in unlikely places - like the fashion runway.
We went from 3D-printing doodads and gadgets to 3D-printing just about everything.
And, if lab-grown beef isn't your thing, what about 3D-printed beef? Billionaire Peter Thiel is backing a venture, Modern Meadow, to 3D-print beef using narrow sheets of cells. One day, you might be able to feed these sheets of cells into a printer the way you would a sheaf of paper, and out pops a tasty burger! The race to 3D-print food took another step toward reality this year with Nasa's announcement that it would consider 3D-printing food for deep space exploration missions to Mars and beyond. After President Barack Obama mentioned 3D printing in his February State of the Union address, 3D printing technology unofficially hit the tech mainstream. This was the year people seemed to print just about anything using 3D-printers, including houses and Smithsonian artefacts. Companies like Amazon suddenly began taking 3D printing seriously. The most-discussed 3D printer story of the year, however, involved 3D-printed guns. In May, US company Defence Distributed gave us the first live demonstration of a 3D-printed gun, made and assembled from plastic parts, and released blueprints for the gun online, meaning that just about anyone in the world - and that includes good guys and bad guys - would theoretically be able to carry around guns and avoid detection.
Global warming finally forced us to take futuristic new forms of transportation seriously.
After months of hype, Elon Musk finally unveiled a wildly futuristic form of transportation known as the Hyperloop that promised to send visitors between Los Angeles and San Francisco in 30 minutes or less. The whole multi-billion-dollar transportation system would be solar-powered, earthquake-resistant and pod-based, giving travellers a welcome alternative to traditional forms of transportation. That is, if the Hyperloop ever gets built.
Musk's Tesla Motors electric-powered cars continued to make headlines throughout the year, earning him rave reviews around the world. Buoyed by Musk's success in championing futuristic new forms of transportation, a group of car manufacturers led by Toyota unveiled the latest form of carbon-free transportation - hydrogen-powered cars - at car shows in Los Angeles and Tokyo. These hydrogen-powered cars could make their way to market as soon as 2015.
Scientists attempted to bring extinct species back to life.
Stewart Brand's "Revive & Restore" de-extinction project, which gained public attention at the beginning of the year, aims to bring back previously extinct species, starting with the humble passenger pigeon. Brand even organised a full-day TEDx "De-Extinction" event in Washington in March, which led to a round of hyperbole about what other species we might be able to bring back from extinction - including the sabre-toothed tiger and the woolly mammoth. And, in Australia, the Lazarus Project plans to bring back extinct frogs and quite possibly even a Tasmanian tiger.
There are many ethical and scientific challenges to overcome before we start to see the appearance of these extinct species, but the science now exists to make it a reality. De-extinction even landed on the cover of National Geographic magazine, as top-level scientists signed on to support the "Revive & Restore" de-extinction project.
Tech companies finally came up with something innovative to replace the humble password.
With stories of hackers breaking into e-mail and social media accounts becoming routine, there's been a push to develop a password alternative. This year, Motorola led the way with two new password concepts - digital tattoos and password pills. The digital tattoos would be implanted under your skin, freeing you from the need to actually remember computer passwords. The tattoos would come with all kinds of embedded sensors and gauges, and might even become fashion statements in their own right. The password pills, which could be ingested daily, would interact with gastric juices in your stomach to "activate" your internal password. Not to be outdone, Apple made fingerprint scanning technology a new feature for user identification on its new iPhone 5S. All of these developments - especially the concept of implanted passwords - point to a radically new future for personal identity. Tech companies now know more about you than ever before. Apple's fingerprint scanning technology, for example, has already raised questions about the types of information that might be stored by big tech companies on their servers or what information about your identity might be shared with third parties.
Scientists got serious about solving the world's future food problems.
A team of scientists, backed by $330 000 in funding from Google'sSergey Brin, successfully grew a 140g burger patty solely from cow stem cells, hinting at a future where all of our food could be grown inside a laboratory. According to a panel of taste tasters assembled in London, the burger may have been a bit on the dry and chewy side, but that's nothing that a little mustard and tomato sauce couldn't solve. Especially considering the beneficial effect these lab-grown burgers might have on our ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and water use in the future.
Drones go from scary to cool.
In a 60 Minutes feature on US television, Jeff Bezos unveiled one of the most talked-about concepts of the year: a drone-powered fleet capable of dropping off packages to customers in 30 minutes or less from Amazon distribution centres across the US. At a time when many people associate drones with US military adventures, the drone concept for Amazon Prime Air opened the discussion about the business case for commercial drones.
The military outsourced war to the machines.
As part of a long-term military strategy to extend its war-fighting capabilities to anywhere on the globe without the need for the involvement of its soldiers, the Pentagon showcased two big projects in 2013: the X47B stealth fighter drone and the new Darpa Atlas robots. The military already had its drones, of course, but the X47B moved the bar even higher when it became the first fighter jet capable of taking off and landing from aircraft carriers on its own. Oh, and the X47B is also capable of carrying lethal payloads and dropping them on enemy positions, all without the need for a human operator even to manipulate a joystick.
The Atlas robots, meanwhile, were virtually indestructible giant metallic Terminator bots capable of carrying out search-and-rescue missions in disaster zones or, alternatively, going door-to-door in urban warfare environments with absolutely no risk to US soldiers. Combined with the Big Dog and the Pentagon's other futuristic-looking robotic animals, the military seems well on its way to creating a next-generation fighting force for the world's riskiest combat zones.
Silicon Valley invented new ways to bring the internet to the entire world.
Both Google and Facebook unveiled new initiatives to bring internet and smartphone access to the world's "next five billion". Mark Zuckerberg'sInternet.org hinted at a future of cheaper phones, better data plans and more efficient smartphone apps for the developing world, while Google's Project Loon proposed a system of giant helium balloons to bring WiFi connectivity to hard-to-reach areas of the world, including those in emerging markets.
As Silicon Valley looks for new sources of revenue and profitability, the developing world is shaping up to be a future battleground. While many of the early initiatives from tech leaders were cloaked in the mantle of global philanthropy, many of the new initiatives next year and beyond are likely to be based on the need to meet Wall Street analyst targets for revenue and profitability. Not surprisingly, then, that when speculation began about Apple's new iPhone 5c, analysts rushed to see it as a way for Apple to hook China and other markets on |lower-cost Apple products.