The following analysis should be read in conjunction with our unaudited consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto included in this report and our audited financial statements and notes thereto. In addition, investors should review the "Cautionary Note Regarding Forward Looking Statements" above and the "Risk Factors" detailed on page 15 of the Company's Prospectus filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on December 9, 2013 as part of the Company's Registration Statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-189507) and Item 1A of Part II of this report for a discussion of those risks and uncertainties that have the potential to affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows or prospects in a material and adverse manner. Our results of operations for interim periods are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected for the full year or for any other period. 27 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Overview NMI Holdings, Inc. ("NMIH" or the "Company") was formed in May 2011 and through its subsidiaries provides private mortgage insurance (which we refer to as "mortgage insurance" or "MI"). As used below, "we" and "our" refer to NMIH's consolidated operations. Following our formation, we focused our efforts on organizational development, capital raising and other start-up related activities. In November 2011 , we entered into a definitive agreement to acquire MAC Financial Holding Corporation and its Wisconsin licensed insurance subsidiaries, Mortgage Assurance Corporation , Mortgage Assurance Reinsurance Inc One and Mortgage Assurance Reinsurance Inc Two, each a Wisconsin corporation, which were renamed National Mortgage Insurance Corporation ("NMIC"), National Mortgage Reinsurance Inc One ("NMRI One") and National Mortgage Reinsurance Inc Two ("NMRI Two"), respectively. In April 2012 , we raised net proceeds of approximately $510 million in a private placement of our common stock (the "Private Placement") and completed the acquisition of MAC Financial and its insurance subsidiaries. The proceeds from the private placement were and will be primarily used to capitalize our insurance subsidiaries and fund our operating expenses until our insurance subsidiaries generate positive cash flows. On September 30, 2013 , we merged MAC Financial Holding Corporation into NMIH, with NMIH surviving the merger, and we merged NMRI Two into NMIC, with NMIC surviving the merger. On November 8, 2013 , the Company filed a final prospectus announcing the sale of approximately 2.1 million shares of common stock through an initial public offering. The underwriters of the offering were granted a 30-day option to purchase up to an additional 315,000 shares of common stock from the Company at an initial public offering price, less underwriting discounts and commissions, to cover over-allotments. The principal reason for conducting the public offering was to expedite an increase in the number of holders of the Company's common stock to permit a listing of its common stock on the NASDAQ Global Market ("NASDAQ"). Obtaining a listing on the NASDAQ satisfied certain contractual obligations the Company has to its stockholders under a Registration Rights Agreement it entered into in connection with the Private Placement. On November 12, 2013 , the underwriters exercised their option in full to purchase an additional 315,000 shares of common stock at a price of $13.00 per share, before underwriting discounts. The offering closed on November 14, 2013 . Gross proceeds to the Company were $31.4 million . Net proceeds from the offering were approximately $29 million , after an approximate 6% underwriting fee and other offering expenses and reimbursements pursuant to the underwriting agreement. Through our primary mortgage insurance subsidiary, NMIC, a mono-line MI company, and its affiliated reinsurance company, NMRI One, we provide residential MI in the United States . Mortgage insurance provides loss protection to mortgage lenders and investors in the event of borrower default on low down payment residential mortgage loans. By protecting lenders and investors from credit losses, we help facilitate the availability of mortgages to prospective, primarily first-time, U.S. home buyers, thus promoting homeownership and helping to revitalize our residential communities. Our business strategy is primarily focused on commencing and growing our MI business by writing high-quality mortgage insurance in the United States . Since the Company's inception, our efforts to build our MI business have included, among other things, building an executive management team and hiring other key officers and directors and staff, building our operating processes, designing and developing our business and technology applications, environment and infrastructure, and securing state licensing and GSE approval. NMIC works to differentiate itself primarily on prompt and predictable underwriting, thereby aiming to provide lenders with a higher degree of confidence of coverage that such lenders are seeking. As a newly capitalized mortgage insurer, we have the ability to write new business without the burden of risky legacy exposures. Our financial results to date have been primarily driven by expenditures related to our business development activities, and to a lesser extent, by our investment activities. We commenced writing MI on a limited test basis during April 2013 . In Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation, we discuss the following in turn below: the significant conditions and factors that have affected our operating results, including the costs associated with the key start-up activities in which we are engaged and development of our investment portfolio; the factors we expect will impact our future results as our mortgage insurance business continues to grow, and certain issues impacting our holding company, NMIH; our sources and uses of liquidity and capital resources; our operating results, which were primarily driven by our start up activities; and critical accounting policies that require management to exercise significant judgments, often as a result of the need to make estimates about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain. Factors Affecting Our Operating Results 28 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Operating Expenses from Development Stage Activities Our expenses for the nine months ended September 30, 2013 and September 30, 2012 , for the year ended December 31, 2012 , and for the period from May 19, 2011 (inception) to September 30, 2013 were $45.5 million , $14.7 million , $27.8 million and $74.6 million , respectively, and consist largely of expenses associated with development stage activities, including payroll and related expenses, share-based compensation and professional fees. The costs that we have incurred to date do not represent the full operations of an operating MI company. We anticipate that, as our insurance writings grow and our sale activities increase, our underwriting expenses in future periods will be considerably higher than in the periods presented to date. Although we expect our year-over-year expenses to increase significantly as we grow our business, we ultimately expect that the majority of our operating expenses will be relatively fixed in the long term. As our business matures and we deploy the majority of our capital, we are targeting our expense ratio (expenses to premiums written) to fall into a range of 20% to 25%. In our initial periods of operation, our expense ratio is expected to be significantly higher than this range given the low levels of premium written compared to our "fixed" costs customary to operating a mortgage insurance company. We believe that we will have an efficient expense structure providing us with greater flexibility. We do not expect to achieve operating profitability through 2014. Additionally, we are targeting an average unlevered ROE in the mid-teens over time. We discuss below the significant development stage activities that have driven our results to date. Start-up Operations Since the closing of our private placement, we engaged in the following activities, which culminated in writing mortgage insurance business beginning in April 2013 : we obtained certificates of authority for NMIC from state insurance regulators to write mortgage insurance in 49 states and D.C.; in January 2013 , NMIC obtained approvals from the GSEs as a qualified mortgage insurer; we made substantial progress in the design, development and implementation of our information technology platform; we established customer relationships with mortgage originators; and we have attracted and retained our employee base and support systems. State Licensing To conduct MI business with many, or potentially all, large, national lenders, we believe NMIC will need to be licensed in all 50 states and D.C. NMIC applied for a certificate of authority in each of the 50 states and D.C. in June 2012 . As of the date of this report, NMIC has obtained certificates of authority in 49 states and D.C. NMIC has not yet received a certificate of authority in Wyoming . NMIC's application for a certificate of authority has not yet been accepted by the Wyoming Insurance Department ("WY DOI") for formal review due to our inability to meet Wyoming's seasoning requirement. Like most of the states in which NMIC is licensed, Wyoming has a statutory seasoning requirement, which requires an applicant for admission to Wyoming to have transacted insurance for two years in its state of domicile prior to being admitted to Wyoming . The Wyoming Insurance Commissioner has the discretion to waive the requirement, however, if he finds that the applicant insures against special hazards to property or liability for which, in the Commissioner's opinion, adequate provision is not already made by insurers already authorized in the state. We requested a waiver under the foregoing provision; however, the Wyoming Insurance Commissioner did not agree to grant a waiver. We had requested, and had been granted, a hearing before a hearing officer to present evidence in support of our assertion that sufficient grounds exist under Wyoming law for the Wyoming Insurance Commissioner to grant our request for a waiver of Wyoming's seasoning requirement. We have agreed jointly with the WY DOI to postpone the hearing in order to discuss a settlement of the seasoning waiver issue. There can be no assurance that we will be able to settle the seasoning waiver issue with the WY DOI. If we do not reach a settlement on the seasoning waiver issue, we intend to request that the postponed hearing be rescheduled so that we may appeal the denial of our request for a waiver of the seasoning requirement. If a waiver is granted, we expect that the WY DOI will review NMIC's application for a certificate of authority in Wyoming . We intend to provide all information requested by the WY DOI but there can be no assurance that we will obtain a certificate of authority in Wyoming even if a seasoning waiver is granted. Many states also require approval of NMIC's insurance rates and/or policy forms before it may issue insurance policies in such states. Of the 49 states and D.C. in which NMIC has received certificates of authority, NMIC currently has effective rates in 48 states and D.C. and effective policy forms in 46 states and D.C. NMIC's application for approval of rates is pending in Washington 29 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- and its applications for approvals of policy forms are pending in Florida , Maryland and Alaska . NMIC must receive approvals of its respective applications in each of these states before it may write MI in such states. As conditions of obtaining licenses in Alabama , Arizona , California , Florida , Missouri , New York, Ohio and Texas , NMIC entered into agreements with the Alabama Department of Insurance ("ALDOI"), the Arizona Department of Insurance ("AZDOI"), the California Insurance Department ("CADOI"), the Florida Office of Insurance Regulation ("FLDOI"), the Missouri Department of Insurance ("MODOI"), the New York State Department of Financial Services ("NYDOI"), the Ohio Department of Insurance ("OHDOI") and the Texas Commissioner of Insurance ("TXDOI"). The agreements with the CADOI, FLDOI, MODOI, NYDOI, OHDOI and TXDOI, provide, among other things, that: NMIC (i) refrain from paying any dividends; (ii) retain all profits; and (iii) other than in Florida , maintain a risk-to-capital ratio not to exceed 20 to 1, for three years from the date of GSE Approval (i.e., until January 2016 ); and certain start-up compensation expenses and equity compensation in the form of stock options and restricted stock units shall not be allocated to or assumed as a cost or expense by NMIC. In its agreements with the FLDOI and NYDOI, NMIC is required to obtain the FLDOI's and NYDOI's respective prior written approvals to significantly deviate from the plan of operations and/or financial projections that were submitted to the FLDOI and NYDOI in connection with NMIC's license applications in those states. In addition, if the lawsuit brought by PMIC's Receiver is determined adversely to any of our officers who are named as defendants in the lawsuit (including our Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer, Chief Sales Officer and Vice President of Sales Operations, Analytics & Planning), we may be required to remove and replace those officers under the terms of the agreements with the ALDOI, AZDOI, FLDOI, NYDOI and TXDOI, as a condition of NMIC obtaining certificates of authority in those states, as well as under an agreement with the Wisconsin OCI. In connection with NMIC's license applications in California, Missouri and New York , NMIH entered into agreements with the CADOI, MODOI and NYDOI requiring NMIH to contribute capital to NMIC as necessary to maintain NMIC's risk-to-capital ratio at or below 20 to 1 for three years from the date of GSE Approval. In the agreement with the FLDOI, NMIH agreed, consistent with conditions of the GSE Approval, to downstream additional capital from time to time, as needed, to maintain NMIC's risk-to-capital ratio at or below 15 to 1. In addition, our operation plan filed with the Wisconsin OCI and other state insurance departments in connection with NMIC's applications for licensure includes the expectation that we will downstream additional capital, if needed, so that NMIC does not exceed an 18 to 1 risk-to-capital ratio. NMRI One is also a party to the agreement with the CADOI. Additionally, and as part of the approval process with the GSEs, we are required for the first three years of operations (expiring December 31, 2015 ) to maintain our risk-to-capital ratio at no greater than 15 to 1 and at all times to maintain total statutory capital of at least $150 million . For further discussion of the GSE Approvals, see "-GSE Approvals," below. Capital Position In addition to the requirement that NMIC adhere to the above minimum capital requirements, in 16 states, NMIC is also subject to regulatory minimum capital requirements based on its insured risk-in-force. While formulations of this minimum capital may vary in each jurisdiction, the most common measure allows for a maximum permitted risk-to-capital ratio of 25 to 1. As a new entrant to the MI business, our insurance writings to date have been minimal compared to the volume of insurance we expect to write as our business grows in the near future. As of September 30, 2013 , NMIC's primary risk-in-force was approximately $1.2 million on a total of 22 policies in force and pool risk-in-force was approximately $93.1 million on a total of approximately 22,000 loans. Based on NMIC's reported statutory capital of $190 million at September 30, 2013 , NMIC is currently significantly below the contractual and regulatory maximum risk-to-capital thresholds. As our insurance writings grow and our risk-in-force increases, our risk-to-capital ratio will increase and NMIC's risk-to-capital metrics will become more important to an evaluation of its compliance with all of the capital requirements to which it is subject. State insurance regulators and the GSEs are currently examining their respective risk-to-capital ratio requirements to determine whether in light of the recent financial crisis, changes are needed to more accurately assess mortgage insurers' ability to withstand stressful economic conditions. On December 17, 2013 , the FHFA, during a conference call with GSE-approved mortgage insurers, announced that the GSEs will issue new qualified mortgage insurer eligibility standards late in the first quarter or early in the second quarter of 2014. These proposed standards are expected to include new minimum capital requirements. During the conference call the FHFA stated that early in the first quarter of 2014 it will provide state insurance regulators a six week comment period in which to review the new standards on a confidential basis. As a result of these stakeholders' ongoing assessments, the capital metrics under which they assess and measure our financial strength will likely change in the future. 30 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- GSE Approvals The GSEs are the principal purchasers of the mortgages insured by MI companies, primarily as a result of their governmental mandate to provide liquidity in the secondary mortgage market. Freddie Mac's and Fannie Mae's federal charters generally prohibit the GSEs from purchasing a low down payment loan, unless the loan is insured by a qualified mortgage insurer, the mortgage seller retains at least a 10% participation in the loan or the seller agrees to repurchase or replace the loan in the event of a default. As a result, the nature of the private mortgage insurance industry in the United States is driven in large part by the requirements and practices of the GSEs, which include: the level of MI coverage, subject to the requirements of the GSEs' charters (which may be changed by federal legislation) as to when MI is used as the required credit enhancement on low down payment mortgages; the amount of loan level delivery fees (which result in higher costs to borrowers) that the GSEs assess on loans that require MI; whether the GSEs influence the mortgage lender's selection of the mortgage insurer providing coverage and, if so, any transactions that are related to that selection; the availability of different loan purchase programs from the GSEs that allow different levels of MI coverage. For example, the GSEs allow lenders to deliver loans with "standard coverage" from an MI company, or, in exchange for lenders paying higher fees, lower "charter minimum" coverage levels. Historically, the large majority of loans are insured at "standard coverage" levels. If the relationship between the cost of mortgage insurance and the fees charged by the GSEs for various coverage levels changes, lenders may prefer to obtain "charter minimum" coverage levels on their loans; the underwriting standards that determine what loans are eligible for purchase by the GSEs, which can affect the quality of the risk insured by the mortgage insurer and the availability of mortgage loans; the terms on which MI coverage can be canceled by the borrower before reaching the cancellation thresholds established by law; the terms that the GSEs require to be included in MI policies for loans that they purchase; the programs established by the GSEs intended to avoid or mitigate loss on insured mortgages and the circumstances in which mortgage servicers must implement such programs; and the minimum capital levels required to be maintained by MI companies. The GSEs' federal charters generally prohibit them from purchasing low down payment loans without certain forms of credit enhancement, one of which is MI from an entity that they determine to be a qualified mortgage insurer. Consequently, in addition to securing certificates of authority, the ability to successfully commence mortgage insurance operations in the U.S. is largely dependent on obtaining approvals from Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac as a qualified MI provider. Following the Company's private placement in April 2012 , NMIC's key focus was to secure approvals from the GSEs. In January 2013 , Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac each approved NMIC as a qualified mortgage insurer. We expect that the significant majority of insurance we will write will be for loans sold to the GSEs. With the GSE Approval, our customers who originate loans insured by NMIC may sell such loans to the GSEs (as of April 1, 2013 for Freddie Mac and as of June 1, 2013 for Fannie Mae). In March 2013 , the FHFA announced its 2013 performance goals as part of its Strategic Plan for Fiscal 2013 - 2017 for the GSEs, which includes the goal of contracting the GSEs' dominant presence in the marketplace while simplifying and shrinking certain lines of business. With respect to single family mortgages, the FHFA has set a target of $30 billion of unpaid principal balance in credit-risk sharing transactions in 2013 for both Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. The FHFA has specified that each GSE must conduct multiple types of risk-sharing transactions to meet this target, which includes expanded MI, credit-linked securities, senior/subordinated securities and other structures. As discussed below in "-New Business Writings", NMIC has entered into a pool insurance agreement with Fannie Mae, pursuant to which NMIC insures approximately 22,000 residential mortgage loans with an aggregate unpaid principal balance of approximately $5.2 billion (as of September 1, 2013 ). As a new business opportunity for MI companies, we generally believe the FHFA's 2013 strategy for the GSEs will have a beneficial impact on our industry.As a GSE-qualified MI provider, NMIC is subject to continuing eligibility requirements imposed by the GSEs in both their January 2013 conditional approvals of NMIC, as well as their respective comprehensive mortgage insurer eligibility requirements. 31 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Development of Our IT Platform The success of our business is highly dependent on our ability to effectively and efficiently use technology to electronically conduct business with our customers. Accordingly, we have invested and will continue to invest resources to establish and maintain electronic connectivity with customers and, more generally, in e-commerce and technological advancements. In order to integrate electronically with mortgage lenders we must: Establish connectivity with the industry's largest providers of mortgage servicing systems, which automate loan servicing functions such as payment processing, escrow administration, default management, investor accounting, loan modifications, and year-end reporting. We have completed integration with the largest and leading servicing system providers, LPS MSP and Fiserv LoanServ , which combined process more mortgages in the United States by dollar volume than any other servicing system, creating significant opportunity to efficiently conduct business with large lenders and aggregators that require this integration; and Integrate with those lenders that maintain their own proprietary loan origination and servicing systems, which provide the functionality to automate the mortgage loan origination process, including point of sale support, processing, settlement services, document preparation and tracking, underwriting, closing and funding, recognizing that the time-lines for these integrations are heavily dependent upon the lenders' internal technology resource time-lines and availability. Many lenders require us to engage in their third party review processes before we can conduct integration testing with such lenders. While we are currently working through this process with some lenders, no direct lender connectivity has been completed as of the date of this report; and Establish connectivity with leading third party providers of loan origination systems. We have begun the process of integrating with the leading third-party loan origination systems and have completed integrations with Ellie Mae Encompass360ฎ and RealECฎ and are in process with FICS Loan Producerฎ and Mortgage Builder. By mid-2014, we believe we will be integrated with these and additional leading third-party loan origination systems. Many of our customers will require us to have the above connectivity in place as a precursor to doing business with them. In connection with the MAC Acquisition in April 2012 , we purchased an insurance management system we refer to as "IMS". Given the time required to upgrade the underwriting module of IMS, we made the business decision during the second quarter of 2013 to pursue the development of two new modules to support (i) policy servicing and billing and (ii) delinquency and claims management within a new insurance management system. We refer to this new insurance management system as "AXIS", of which these new modules are a component. This change required us to provide these services to our customers using current IMS capabilities, interim applications and manual solutions until the new policy servicing and billing module and the delinquency and claims management module were deployed for production use in November 2013 . Additionally, during the fourth quarter of 2013, in order to reduce future operating costs, improve operational efficiencies and achieve a more flexible and enhanced user experience for loan originators, we decided to replace certain components of our underwriting module, which is currently a module of IMS. When complete, this new underwriting module will become part of AXIS. We are currently in the discovery and planning phase of this initiative and expect this new module to be deployed in 2014. When deployed, IMS will be fully retired. We have invested and will continue to invest significant resources to develop AXIS to support our MI operations. The success of our business will be dependent on our ability to resolve any issues identified with AXIS during development, testing and production and to timely make any necessary improvements. As a result of the above changes, we were required to reduce the useful life of IMS. Reducing the useful life of IMS has the effect of shortening the amortization period, causing us to record the same amount of amortization expense over a shorter period of time, which was implemented in the second quarter of 2013 and will continue to amortize over the coming quarters. We expect that IMS will be fully amortized by the end of 2014. Development of Our Customer Base Our sales strategy is focused on attracting as customers those mortgage originators that fall into one of two distinct categories of national and regional lenders, which we refer to as "National Accounts" and "Regional Accounts". Before we can begin insuring loans originated by these lenders, they must agree to use NMIC as a mortgage insurance provider. Following an approval by the lender, NMIC issues its master policy to the lender, setting forth the terms and conditions of our MI coverage. We consider National Accounts to be the 36 most significant residential mortgage originators as defined by volume of originations and volume of insured business. We plan to service this customer base with a small but specialized team of National Account sales people who have experience sourcing business from this segment. We expect that the National Accounts will purchase MI products from NMIC for loans originated directly through their retail channels, as well as to purchase loans from 32 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- other originators that have originated loans with NMIC insurance already in place. Our progress with National Accounts includes establishing relationships, working to complete our respective due diligence processes, issuing master polices, responding to information data security assessments and evaluations, mutually evaluating credit policies and parameters and continuing to integrate with the necessary origination and loan servicing systems, as discussed above. To date, 18 of the National Account lenders have indicated that they intend to do business with us and we continue to work towards completing our customer boarding process. These 18 National Accounts generate approximately 21% of the industry's new insurance written. While we believe we have favorable relationships with the 18 National Accounts that have indicated they will purchase MI from NMIC, there is no obligation to use NMIC as an MI provider and, as of the date of this report, we have received a limited amount of business from some of these national account providers. We continue to work with the other 18 National Accounts to engage them as customers. The Regional Accounts originate mortgage loans on a local or regional level throughout the United States . We intend for our nationwide and regional sales teams to address the Regional Accounts segment of the market, and with the early efforts of these teams, we have been able to attract a small population of lenders in this segment who have agreed to purchase MI from NMIC. Our future efforts will be focused on growing this segment of our customer base. Our ability to make progress penetrating Regional Accounts is primarily dependent on the following three factors: Obtaining approval from National Account lenders to be an authorized MI provider enables Regional Accounts to sell loans with insurance from NMIC to those National Accounts. Consequently, these approvals are critical to making inroads with Regional Accounts. As discussed above, 18 of the 36 National Accounts have indicated that they intend to do business with us. Achieving connectivity with the largest loan servicing systems. Many of the loan servicers in the industry who sub-service loans originated by Regional Accounts that do not conduct their own servicing operations rely primarily on the two most significant servicing systems, LPS MSP and Fiserv LoanServTM, to subservice these loans. As discussed above in "Development of Our IT Platform," we have completed integration with LPS MSP and Fiserv LoanServTM. Attaining connectivity with these servicing systems is one of the important steps with respect to both National and Regional Accounts purchasing MI from NMIC. Achieving connectivity with leading third-party loan origination systems utilized by Regional Accounts. As discussed above, we have begun the process of integrating with some of the leading providers of automated loan origination systems, including Ellie Mae Encompass360ฎ, RealECฎ, FICS Loan Producerฎ and Mortgage Builder. The Regional Accounts who originate loans using these leading third-party loan origination systems will be able to automatically select NMIC as an MI provider within those systems. The progress we have made to date connecting with these loan origination systems is another significant achievement with respect to our readiness to engage with the Regional Accounts. Employees We believe that our growth and future success will depend in large part on the services and skills of our management team and our ability to motivate and retain these individuals and other key personnel. As of September 30, 2013 , we had significantly developed our employee base to support our regional and national sales teams, policy acquisition and servicing, IT, and all other back-office functions. Based on the execution of our business plan, we have hired a substantial number of employees since raising our initial capital in April 2012 . We expect to continue to add additional staff throughout the remainder of 2013 and into the first half of 2014. We currently expect to have 142 total full-time employees by the end of 2013. New Business Writings NMIC commenced, on a limited test basis, writing insurance business on April 1, 2013 . As of September 30, 2013 , NMIC has approximately $1.2 million of primary risk-in-force, representing 22 loans with an aggregate unpaid principal balance of approximately $4.6 million . We expect that NMIC's insurance-in-force and risk-in-force will increase over the coming months as our operations continue to mature. During the second fiscal quarter of 2013, NMIC bid on a pool insurance transaction proposed by Fannie Mae. As discussed previously, the FHFA has set targets for reducing the GSEs' mortgage risk in 2013. One of the methods available to the GSEs is to utilize MI companies as insurers of particular groups, or pools, of loans. In July 2013 , we were notified that Fannie Mae had selected NMIC for this pool transaction. NMIC entered into an agreement with Fannie Mae, pursuant to which NMIC insures approximately 22,000 loans with an aggregate unpaid principal balance of approximately $5.2 billion (as of September 1, 2013 ). The effective date of the agreement and the coverage is September 1, 2013 , and in September 2013 , we received our first premium payment from Fannie Mae. The agreement has an expected term of 10 years from the coverage effective date. The initial risk-in-force to NMIC is approximately $93.1 million which represents the amount between a deductible payable by Fannie Mae on initial losses and a stop loss, above which, losses are borne by Fannie Mae. In addition, the agreement contains 33 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- counterparty requirements that specify the amount of capital NMIC will need to maintain to support the agreement, which is equal to the amount of net risk-in-force on this pool. The risk-in-force and the capital we are required to maintain to support this risk will decline over the 10-year term of the agreement as the loans in the pool amortize. NMIC will be paid monthly premiums by Fannie Mae based on a fixed premium rate and the aggregate outstanding unpaid principal balance of loans in the pool. Similar to other monthly products, we will record the premium received on a monthly basis as written premium. In addition, all of the premium will be recorded as earned in the month received, with no unearned premium reserve established. All of the loans in the pool were originated between July 1 and December 31, 2012 . In order for a loan to have been and remain eligible for coverage under the agreement, it must be current as of the coverage effective date and not have had a 30-day delinquency prior to the coverage effective date. The maximum LTV of the loans in the pool is 80% and the weighted average LTV of the loans in the pool is 77%, which is below the typical LTV of low-down payment loans we would expect to insure through our flow channel, which we anticipate will have average LTVs at origination of between 85% and 95%. The average LTV of the loans in the pool was calculated based on the loans' origination values and the unpaid principal balances as of February 1, 2013 , the date as of which the bid data was prepared. This pool transaction is unlike a typical pool transaction, in that the loans which make up this particular pool do not have primary MI on them, as the LTVs at origination were below what would have required MI to be placed at loan origination. The average credit score at origination of borrowers in the pool is 764 which is considered to be an excellent credit score by the three major credit bureaus. All of the loans in the pool are 30-year, fixed rate mortgages and were made to borrowers whose incomes we believe were fully documented, with approximately 29% of those borrowers located in California . Based on the foregoing attributes, we believe that NMIC has insured a high quality loan pool. Related premiums will decline over the 10-year term of the agreement as loans in the pool amortize over time. Terms of Mortgage Insurance Coverage Under the terms of National MI's current master policy, after a borrower has made his or her first 18 monthly payments in a timely manner on a loan we insure, we will not rescind or cancel coverage of that loan for borrower misrepresentation or underwriting defects. In addition, if a borrower makes his first 18 payments in a timely manner, we have agreed to limitations on our ability to initiate an investigation of fraud or misrepresentation by our insureds or any other party involved in the origination of an insured loan, which we collectively refer to in our master policies as a " First Party ." We refer to these provisions of our master policy as "rescission relief." On December 10, 2013 , we announced that National MI will introduce a new version of our master policy which will provide rescission relief after a borrower has timely made his first 12 monthly payments on a loan, rather than 18 months as provided in the current master policy. We believe that this new version of our master policy may result in us gaining incrementally more market share, with no material increase in our underwriting expenses or losses incurred, than if we remained at an 18-month standard for rescission relief. The new master policy is pending final approvals from the GSEs, FHFA and state insurance regulators. We believe the standard approach used by most MI companies in their delegated channels is to provide rescission relief with respect to underwriting defects and investigation of First Party fraud or misrepresentation after 36 months of full and timely consecutive monthly payments. We believe the terms of our insurance coverage described in our master policy have been and will continue to be favorably received by our customers, allowing us to gain market share from current MI providers. Development of our Investment Portfolio Our net investment income for the nine months ended September 30, 2013 was approximately $3.3 million compared to approximately $1 thousand for the nine months ended September 30, 2012 and approximately $6 thousand for the year ended December 31, 2012 and approximately $3.3 million for the period from May 19, 2011 (inception) to September 30, 2013 . During the first quarter of 2013, we began investing our cash holdings in fixed income securities which provide a higher yield. We continued to invest our cash holdings in fixed income securities during the second quarter of 2013. As of September 30, 2013 , we consider our portfolio to be in conformity with our investment guidelines. The principal factors affecting our investment income include the size of our portfolio and its yield. As measured by amortized cost (which excludes changes in fair market value, such as those resulting from changes in interest rates), the size of our investment portfolio is mainly a function of our initial capital raised, cash generated from (or used in) operations, such as net premiums received, investment earnings, net claim payments and expenses. 34 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Factors Expected to Affect Results as Our Mortgage Insurance Operations Grow We expect that as our insurance business develops, our results of operations will be affected by the following factors. Premiums Written and Earned In our industry, a "book" is a group of loans that an MI company insures in a particular period, normally a calendar year. We set premiums at the time a policy is issued based on our expectations regarding likely performance over the term of coverage. We expect the annual average premium rate we charge on our monthly primary flow MI policies, which we expect to comprise the majority of our business, to be between 50 and 60 basis points. Premiums written and earned in a year are generally influenced by: new insurance written, which is the aggregate principal amount of the mortgages that are insured during a period. Many factors affect new insurance written, including, among others, the volume of low down payment home mortgage originations (which tend to be generated to a greater extent on the level of purchase financings as compared to refinancings) and the competition to provide credit enhancement on those mortgages, which includes competition from the Federal Housing Administration ("FHA"), other mortgage insurers, lenders or other investors holding mortgages in their portfolios without insurance, piggy-back loans and GSE programs that may reduce or eliminate the demand for MI and other alternatives to MI; cancellations, which reduce insurance-in-force. Cancellations due to refinancings are affected by the level of current mortgage interest rates compared to the mortgage rates on our insurance in force. Refinancings are also affected by current home values compared to values when the loans became insured and the terms on which mortgage credit is available. Cancellations also include rescissions, which require us to return any premiums received related to the rescinded policy, and policies canceled due to claim payment, which require us to return any premium received subsequent to the date the insured mortgage defaults. Finally, cancellations are affected by home price appreciation, which may give homeowners the right to cancel the MI on their loans. Based on current market conditions, we expect our MI policies to have a persistency rate of approximately 80%; premium rates, which are based on the risk characteristics of the loans insured, the percentage of coverage on the loans, competition from other mortgage insurers, and general industry conditions; and premiums ceded under reinsurance agreements. Losses Incurred Losses incurred are the current expense that is booked within a particular period to reflect actual and estimated loss payments that we believe will ultimately be made as a result of insured loans that are in default. As explained under "Critical Accounting Estimates," we do not recognize an estimate of loss expense for loans that are not in default. Losses incurred are generally affected by: the state of the economy, including unemployment and housing values, each of which affects the likelihood that borrowers may default on their loans and have the ability to cure such defaults; the product mix of insurance-in-force, with loans having higher risk characteristics generally resulting in higher defaults and claims; the size of loans insured, with higher average loan amounts tending to increase losses incurred; the loan-to-value ratio, with higher average loan-to-value ratios tending to increase losses incurred; the percentage of coverage on insured loans, with deeper average coverage tending to increase incurred losses; changes in housing values, which affect our ability to mitigate our losses through sales of properties with loans in default as well as borrower willingness to continue to make mortgage payments when the value of the home is below or perceived to be below the mortgage balance; higher debt-to-income ratios, which tend to increase incurred losses; the rate at which we rescind policies. Because of tighter underwriting standards generally in the mortgage lending industry, we expect that our level of rescission activity, as well as that of the MI industry in general, will be lower than recent rescission activity experienced by the MI industry; and 35 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- the distribution of claims over the life of a book. Historically, the first two to three years after loans are originated are a period of relatively low claims, with claims increasing substantially for several years subsequent and then declining. Factors, such as persistency of the book, the condition of the economy, including unemployment and housing prices, and others, can affect this pattern. See " Mortgage Insurance Earnings and Cash Flow Cycle." We expect that losses incurred for the first two to three years of our operations will be relatively low for the following reasons: as stated above, the typical distribution of claims over the life of a book results in fewer defaults during the first two to three years after loans are originated, usually peaking in years three through six and declining thereafter; we expect that the frequency of claims on our initial primary books of business should be between 3% and 4% of mortgages insured over the life of the book. For claims that we may receive, we expect the severity of the loss to be between 85% and 95% of the coverage amount. Based on these expectations, we believe that the loss ratio over the life of each book will be between 20% and 25% of earned premiums. Because we expect the losses on insured mortgages to develop over time, we believe that the reported loss ratio in our first 2-3 years of operation will be less than 10% of earned premiums; and under the pool insurance agreement between NMIC and Fannie Mae, as discussed above in this report, NMIC is responsible for losses only to the extent they exceed a deductible. We developed our estimates of the expected frequency and severity of claims based on statutory filings by many of our competitors, which contain historical book year performance. As state-regulated entities, mortgage insurers are required to file actuarial justifications for premium rate changes in many states, many of which are publicly available and include historical information on claim frequency and severity. Historical performance data from similar underwriting, house price, and interest rate periods were compared to today to determine a range of expected performance. Qualified Residential Mortgage Rule The Dodd-Frank Act, which was enacted by Congress in July 2010 , requires a securitizer to retain at least 5% of the credit risk associated with securitized mortgage loans. In some cases the retained risk may be allocated between the securitizer and the mortgage originator. This risk retention requirement does not apply to mortgage loans that are Qualified Residential Mortgages ("QRMs") or that are insured by the FHA or another federal agency. By exempting QRMs from the risk-retention requirement, the cost of securitizing these mortgages would be reduced, thus providing a market incentive for the origination of loans that are exempt from the risk-retention requirement. The Dodd-Frank Act requires certain federal regulators, including the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"), the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation ("FDIC"), the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency ("OCC") and (as to residential mortgage transactions) U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development ("HUD") and FHFA, to promulgate regulations providing for minimum credit risk-retention requirements in securitizations of residential mortgage loans that do not meet the definition of QRM. In March 2011 , federal regulators issued the proposed credit risk retention rule, which the regulators re-proposed with certain revisions on August 28, 2013 . The initial proposed rule suggested a maximum loan-to-value ratio (or, "LTV") of 80% in purchase transactions, 75% in rate and term refinance transactions, and 70% in cash-out refinancings, along with other restrictions such as limits on a borrower's debt-to-income ratio. The suggested LTV figures did not give consideration to MI in computing LTV. According to the re-proposal, the majority of commenters, including securitization sponsors, housing industry groups, mortgage bankers, lenders, consumer groups, and legislators opposed the agencies' original QRM proposal, recommending instead that almost all mortgages without features such as negative amortization, balloon payments, or teaser rates should qualify for an exemption from risk retention. Some commenters expressed support for additional factors, such as less stringent LTV restrictions and reliance on MI for high-LTV loans. The re-proposed rule did not carry forward the minimum LTV requirements and other specific restrictions. Instead, the federal regulators proposed that whether a particular loan transaction is a QRM, and thus not subject to the credit risk retention requirement, should be determined by reference to the "qualified mortgage" (QM) rule under the Truth in Lending Act and Regulation Z, discussed below. That is, if a residential mortgage loan is a QM loan, the loan would be considered a QRM loan. The federal regulators requested comment on whether the common definition of QRM should be limited to "safe harbor" QM loans or QM loans that satisfy either the "safe harbor" or "rebuttable presumption" QM standard. Under this part of the re-proposed rule, because of the capital support provided by the U.S. government, the GSEs during their conservatorship would not be subject to the Dodd-Frank Act credit risk retention requirements. Changes in the conservatorship status of the GSEs or capital support provided to the GSEs by the U.S. government could impact the manner in which the credit risk retention rules apply to the GSEs. If the QRM rule is finalized in accordance with the federal regulators' re-proposal, it is difficult to predict the impact on the size of the non-GSE loan securitization market and the demand for MI within this market. 36 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The federal regulators in the re-proposal also presented an alternative approach to defining QRM, referred to as "QM plus." Under this alternative, only certain types of residential mortgage loans, such as first-lien loans secured by 1-to-4 family principal dwelling units, could be considered QRM transactions. To be eligible for QRM status, the loan would have to be free of certain loan terms and have an LTV at closing no greater than 70%. Junior liens under the QM plus alternative would be permitted only in non-purchase money loan transactions and if permitted, would need to be included in the 70% LTV calculation. Under this alternative, mortgage insurance would not reduce the minimum LTV requirement. In addition, loans that achieve a QM status because they meet the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau's ("CFPB") QM requirements for GSE-eligible transactions would not be considered QRM transactions under the alternative proposal. Changes in final regulations regarding treatment of GSE eligible mortgage loans could impact the manner in which the credit risk retention rule applies to GSE securitizations. We, and the industry, continue to evaluate the expected impact of the re-proposed QRM rule on the MI industry, and such potential impact depends on, among other things, (i) the final definition of QRM and its requirements for LTV, loan features and debt-to-income ratio, (ii) whether the final definition will affect the size of the high-LTV mortgage market and (iii) the extent to which the mortgage purchase and securitization activities of the GSEs become a smaller portion of the overall mortgage finance market and securitizations subject to the risk retention requirements and the QRM exemption, become a larger part of the mortgage market. Qualified Mortgage Rule The Dodd-Frank Act contains the ability to repay ("ATR") mortgage provisions, which govern the obligation of lenders to determine the borrower's ability to pay when originating a mortgage loan. The CFPB issued final ATR regulations on January 10, 2013 and amendments on May 29, 2013 , July 10, 2013 and September 13, 2013 implementing detailed requirements on how lenders must establish a borrower's ability to repay a covered mortgage loan. The ATR rule becomes effective January 10, 2014 . A subset of mortgages within the ATR rule are known as "qualified mortgages" ("QMs"). For a mortgage loan to be a QM, the rule first prohibits certain loan features, such as negative amortization, points and fees in excess of 3% of the loan amount, and terms exceeding 30 years. The rule also establishes underwriting criteria for QMs including that a borrower must have a total debt-to-income ratio of less than or equal to 43%. The ATR rule provides that a covered first mortgage loan meeting the QM definition bearing an annual percentage rate no greater than 1.5% plus a prevailing market rate is regarded as complying with ATR requirements, while if a loan bears an annual percentage rate of greater than 1.5% plus a prevailing market rate, it will carry a rebuttable presumption of compliance with the ATR rule. QMs under the rule benefit from a statutory presumption of compliance with the ATR rule, potentially mitigating the risk of the liability of the creditor and assignee of the creditor under the Truth in Lending Act. Because of the QM evidentiary standard that gives presumption of compliance, we anticipate that most loans originated after the ATR rule goes into effect will be QMs. The rule also provides a temporary category of QMs that have more flexible underwriting requirements so long as they satisfy the general product feature requirements of QMs and so long as they meet the underwriting requirements of the GSEs or those of HUD, Department of Veterans Affairs or Rural Housing Service (collectively, "Other Federal Agencies"). The temporary category of QMs that meet the underwriting requirements of the GSEs will phase out upon the earlier to occur of the end of the conservatorship of the GSEs or January 10, 2021 . The rules for the Other Federal Agencies will terminate when they issue their own qualified mortgage rules, respectively. On September 30, 2013 , HUD proposed its own rule to define a "Qualified Mortgage" that would be insured, guaranteed or administered by FHA, and therefore the temporary category QM definition in the ATR rule will terminate upon final adoption of HUD's own rule. We expect that most lenders will be reluctant to make loans that do not qualify as QMs because absent full compliance with the ATR rule, such loans will not be entitled to the presumptions about compliance with the ability-to-repay requirements. The ATR regulation may impact the mortgage insurance industry in several ways. First, the ATR regulation will have a direct impact on establishing a subset of borrowers who can meet the regulatory QM standards and will have a direct effect on the size of the mortgage market in any given year, once the regulations become effective. Second, under the ATR regulation, if the lender requires the borrower to purchase MI, then the MI premiums are included in monthly mortgage costs in determining the borrower's ability to repay the loan. The demand for MI may decrease if, and to the extent that, monthly MI premiums make it less likely that a loan will qualify for QM status, especially if MI alternatives, such as piggy-back loans, are relatively less expensive. Third, under the ATR regulation, mortgage insurance premiums that are payable at or prior to consummation of the loan are includible in points and fees for purposes of determining QM status unless, and to the extent that, such up-front premiums ("UFP") are (i) less than or equal to the UFP charged by the FHA, and (ii) are refundable on a pro rata basis upon satisfaction of the loan. (The FHA currently charges UFP of 1.75% on all residential mortgage loans, but it has the authority to change its UFP from time to time.) As inclusion of MI premiums towards the 3% cap will reduce the capacity for other points and fees in covered transactions, mortgage originators may be less likely to purchase single premium MI products to the extent that the associated premiums are 37 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- deemed to be points and fees. As a result, we believe that the ATR rule may increase demand for monthly and annual MI products relative to single premium products. GSE Reform The FHFA is the conservator of the GSEs and has the authority to control and direct their operations. The increased role that the federal government has assumed in the residential mortgage market through the GSE conservatorship may increase the likelihood that the business practices of the GSEs change in ways that affect the MI industry. In addition, these factors may increase the likelihood that the charters of the GSEs are changed by new federal legislation. The Dodd-Frank Act required the U.S. Department of the Treasury to report its recommendations regarding options for ending the conservatorship of the GSEs. This report was released in February 2011 and while it does not provide any definitive timeline for GSE reform, it does recommend using a combination of federal housing policy changes to wind down the GSEs, shrink the government's footprint in housing finance, and help bring private capital back to the mortgage market. Since 2011, there have been numerous legislative proposals, including in the current Congressional session, intended to scale back the GSEs, however, no legislation has been enacted to date. In the second quarter of 2012, both Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac reported profits for the first time since the fourth quarter of 2006. Also, the second quarter of 2012 was the first time that neither of the GSEs had to request financial support from the U.S. Treasury. Based on continued improvements in the housing market, as of September 30, 2013 , Fannie Mae had posted profits for seven consecutive quarters. Through September 30, 2013 , Fannie Mae had paid $105.3 billion in dividends to the U.S. Treasury. The payouts do not constitute a repayment of the money the U.S. government used to maintain Fannie Mae's solvency during the housing crisis. The Treasury continues to hold $117.1 billion in senior preferred Fannie Mae shares. Under the terms of the preferred stock investment agreements between the U.S. Treasury and the GSEs, all GSE profits are remitted to the U.S. Treasury, and as such the return to profitability of the GSEs has become a source of revenues to the Federal government at a time of large Federal deficits. The profitability of the GSEs, and the active interest of investors in GSE securities which would benefit from a recapitalization of the GSEs, may impact the pace and direction of housing finance reform. Competition with FHA The FHA, which is part of HUD, substantially increased its share of the total combined private and governmental mortgage insurance market beginning in 2008. We believe that the FHA's market share increased, in part, because private mortgage insurers tightened their underwriting guidelines (which led to increased utilization of the FHA's programs) and because of increases in the amount of loan level delivery fees that the GSEs assess on loans (which result in higher costs to borrowers). We believe that federal legislation and programs that were adopted as emergency measures to support the declining housing market provided the FHA with greater flexibility in establishing new products and resulted in increased market share for the FHA. During 2011, the FHA's market share began to gradually decline. In part, we believe the decline in market share has been driven by multiple increases in the FHA's mortgage insurance premium rates and upfront fees since 2010, as well as greater availability of private capital with new entrants to the MI sector, such as us. We believe that the FHA's current premium pricing, when compared to our current premium pricing (and considering the effects of GSE pricing changes), allows us to be competitive with the FHA. We believe the MI industry will continue to recover market share from the FHA as it pulls back and permits more private capital to return to the market. On December 6, 2013 , HUD announced that beginning on January 1, 2014 , the FHA will reduce the maximum size of residential mortgage loans that it will insure in nearly 650 counties. The new national maximum loan limit for certain "high-cost" areas will be reduced from $729,750 to $625,500 . The current national standard loan limit for areas where housing costs are relatively low will remain unchanged at $271,050 . Areas are eligible for FHA loan limits above the national standard limit, and up to the national maximum level, based on median area home prices. According to HUD's news release, the higher limits that had been in place for six years were established by the Economic Stimulus Act of 2008 as emergency measures to assure that mortgage credit was widely available during a time when private lending options were severely constrained. FHA's Commissioner Carol Galante acknowledged that as the housing market continues its recovery, the FHA lowering its loan limits is an important and appropriate step as private capital returns to portions of the market. We cannot predict, however, the FHA's share of new insurance written in the future due to, among other factors, different loan eligibility terms between the FHA and the GSEs; future increases in guarantee fees charged by the GSEs; changes to the FHA's annual premiums; and the total profitability that may be realized by mortgage lenders from securitizing loans through the Government National Mortgage Association ("Ginnie Mae") when compared to securitizing loans through Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac. The FHA's role in the mortgage insurance industry is also significantly dependent upon regulatory developments. The U.S. Congress is considering reforms of the housing finance market, which includes consideration of the future mission, size and structure of the FHA. Each year, FHA is required to perform an actuarial projection on its insurance portfolio and report the results to Congress . On December 13, 2013 , HUD made a report to Congress that the FHA's Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund's ("Fund") net worth improved from last year's estimate, from negative $16.3 billion to negative $1.3 billion . In addition, HUD reported that the Fund's 38 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- capital ratio is -0.11% but is expected to return to a required capital reserve ratio of 2% by 2015, 2 years sooner than earlier projections. Although the Fund's outlook has improved considerably, Congress continues to consider legislation to reform the FHA. If FHA reform were to raise FHA premiums, tighten FHA credit guidelines, make other changes which make lender use of FHA less attractive, or implement credit risk sharing between FHA and private mortgage insurers, these changes may be beneficial to our business. However, there can be no assurance that any FHA reform legislation will be enacted into law, and even if there is reform legislation, it is uncertain what provisions may be contained in any final legislation, if any. Therefore, the future impact on our business is uncertain. As a result of the foregoing, it is uncertain what role the GSEs, FHA and private capital, including MI, will play in the domestic residential housing finance system in the future or the impact of any such changes on our business. In addition, the timing of the impact on our business is uncertain. Most meaningful changes would require Congressional action to implement, and it is difficult to estimate when Congress would take action, and if it did, how long it would take for such action to be final and how long any associated phase-in period may last. Considering the recent financial turnaround or the perceived turnaround of the GSEs, the timing of any of these changes becomes more difficult to assess. Mortgage Insurance Earnings and Cash Flow Cycle In general, the majority of any underwriting profit (i.e., the premium revenue minus losses) that a book generates occurs in the early years of the book, with the largest portion of the underwriting profit for that book realized in the first year. The earnings we record and the cash flow we receive varies based on the type of MI product and premium plan our customers select. We offer monthly, annual and single premium payment plans. We currently expect that the majority of lenders who purchase MI from us will select one of our monthly premium plans. Factors that Impact Holding Company Operations NMIH serves as the holding company for our insurance subsidiaries and does not have any significant operations of its own. NMIH's principal liquidity demands include funds for: (i) the payment of certain corporate expenses; (ii) capital support for our mortgage insurance subsidiaries; (iii) potential payments to the IRS ; and (iv) the payment of dividends, if any, on its common stock. Our future capital requirements depend on many factors, including our ability to successfully write new business and establish premium rates at levels sufficient to cover losses. To the extent that the funds generated by our ongoing operations and initial capitalization are insufficient to fund future operating requirements, we may need to raise additional funds through financings or curtail our growth and reduce our assets. In order to support a minimum surplus of $150 million and maintain a risk-to-capital ratio under 15 to 1 through December 31, 2015 at NMIC, NMIH may be required to make additional capital contributions to NMIC. NMIH could be required to provide additional capital support for NMIC and NMRI One if additional capital is required pursuant to insurance laws and regulations, by the GSEs or the rating agencies. As of September 30, 2013 , NMIC's and NMRI One's statutory capital was approximately $190 million and $10 million , respectively. As of September 30, 2013 , we had approximately $1.2 million in primary risk-in-force and approximately $93.1 million in pool risk-in-force. Dividends from NMIC and permitted payments under our tax- and expense-sharing arrangements with our subsidiaries are NMIH's principal sources of cash. The expense-sharing arrangements between NMIH and our insurance subsidiaries, as amended, have been approved by applicable state insurance departments, but such approval may be changed or revoked at any time. NMIC's ability to pay dividends to NMIH is subject to various conditions imposed by the GSEs and by insurance regulations requiring insurance department approval. In general, dividends in excess of prescribed limits are deemed "extraordinary" and require insurance regulatory approval. Additionally, under agreements with the GSEs, NMIH is not permitted to extract dividends from our insurance subsidiaries until December 31, 2015 and under agreements with various state insurance regulators, is not permitted to extract dividends from our insurance subsidiaries until January 2016 . NMIH is not subject to any limitations on its ability to pay dividends except those generally applicable to corporations, such as NMI Holdings, Inc. , that are incorporated in Delaware . Delaware corporation law provides that dividends are only payable out of a corporation's capital surplus or (subject to certain limitations) recent net profits. As of December 31, 2012 , NMIH's capital surplus was $488.7 million . 39 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Liquidity and Capital Resources As a holding company, we expect that our principal sources of liquidity over time will be dividends, expense reimbursements from our insurance subsidiaries and income generated by our investment portfolio. However, the issuances of dividends by our insurance subsidiaries are subject to regulatory approval and are further limited by the GSE Approvals and agreements with various state insurance regulators. We expect primary cash uses will be to fund holding company operating expenses, investment expenses and other costs of our business. Our MI companies' principal sources of liquidity will be premiums that we receive from policies and income generated by our investment portfolio. Our MI companies' primary liquidity needs include the payment of claims on our MI policies, operating expenses, investment expenses and other costs of our business. See "Factors Affecting Our Operating Results." As part of our initial capitalization, we raised net proceeds of $510 million . We contributed $210 million to NMIC, whereupon NMIC contributed $10 million to its wholly-owned subsidiary, NMRI Two. In addition, we contributed $10 million to NMRI One. On September 30, 2013 , we merged NMRI Two into NMIC with NMIC surviving the merger. As of September 30, 2013 , we had approximately $446.1 million in cash and investments of which $241 million was held at our holding company. As of September 30, 2013 , the amount of restricted net assets held by our consolidated insurance subsidiaries totaled approximately $203 million of our consolidated net assets of approximately $447 million . The following table summarizes our consolidated cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities: For the Period May 19, 2011 For the Period May (inception) 19, 2011 For the Year Ended to December (inception) to Nine months ended September 30, December 31, 31, September 30, 2013 2012 2012 2011 2013 (In thousands) Net Cash (Used in) Provided by: Operating Activities $ (29,281 ) $ (8,864 ) $ (14,596 ) $ (205 ) $ (44,082 ) Investing Activities (420,899 ) (6,612 ) (9,809 ) - (430,708 ) Financing Activities (1,578 ) 510,260 510,260 205 508,887 Net (Decrease) Increase in Cash and Cash Equivalents $ (451,758 ) $ 494,784 $ 485,855 $ - $ 34,097 Cash used in operating activities for the first nine months of 2013 was higher compared to the same period in 2012 due primarily to significant hiring of management and staff personnel between May 2012 and September 2013 and external and professional costs incurred in conjunction with our state licensing process. Cash used in operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2012 compared to the period from May 19, 2011 (inception) to December 31, 2011 was higher due to the ramp up of operations in 2012 following the receipt of proceeds from the private placement offering in April 2012 . Prior to the completion of the private placement offering on April 24, 2012 , our activities were focused on organizational development, capital raising and other start-up related activities. Cash used in investing activities for the first nine months of 2013 was higher compared to the same period in 2012 primarily due to investing activities as we began investing our cash holdings in fixed income securities during the first quarter of 2013, following GSE Approval. We continued to invest our cash holdings in fixed income securities during the second and third quarters of 2013. Cash used in investing activities for the year ended December 31, 2012 consisted of the purchase of short-term investments held on deposit with various states, purchases of software and equipment and the acquisition of MAC. There were no cash flows from investing activities during the period from May 19, 2011 (inception) to December 31, 2011 as our activities were focused on organizational development, capital raising and other start-up related activities. Cash used in financing activities in the first nine months of 2013 consisted of taxes paid related to the net share settlement of equity awards. Cash provided by financing activities in the first nine months of 2012 and for the year-ended December 31, 2012 consisted of net proceeds from the issuance of common stock through our private placement offering on April 24, 2012 . Cash provided by financing activities during the period from May 19, 2011 (inception) to December 31, 2011 consisted of proceeds from a line of credit secured to fund the organizational development and capital raise and other start-up activities until the completion of the private placement offering. 40 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- We expect that cash and investments and projected cash flows from operations will provide us with sufficient liquidity to fund our anticipated growth by providing capital to increase our insurance company surplus as well as for payment of operating expenses through 2015, at which point we currently expect to need to seek additional capital. We expect that as our insurance-in-force grows, the premium revenue we receive will increase. However, if our risk-in-force or our expenses materially exceed our expectations or our risk-to-capital ratio is expected to exceed 15 to 1, we may have to raise additional capital sooner to support our growth. In addition, we may raise additional capital to leverage our fixed expenses in order to achieve a return on capital attractive to investors. We expect to leverage and manage our fixed operating expenses so that they grow at a much slower rate than sales over the coming years. As we increase our volume of MI business, we expect to see variable costs increase primarily within underwriting and sales; however, we expect to see only marginal increases in what we consider our fixed cost areas (i.e., management, finance, legal, risk and information technology) as these areas of the business were required to be in place before we could generate revenue. We believe we will not need to incur significant additional fixed costs to be able to successfully service an increased volume of business with our existing structure, thereby growing revenue and producing greater levels of operating profits with marginal increases in such fixed costs. Eventually, we will need to expand our fixed cost structure in order to service an even greater level of business. We may choose to generate additional liquidity through the issuance of a combination of debt or equity securities, as well as financing through borrowing. Taxes We are a U.S. taxpayer and are subject to a statutory U.S. federal corporate income tax rate of approximately 35%. Our holding company files a consolidated U.S. federal income tax return on behalf of itself and its subsidiaries. As we deploy our capital, we plan to invest a portion of our investment portfolio in tax-exempt municipal securities, which investment may have the effect of lowering our effective tax rate below 35%. The effective income tax (benefit) rate on our pre-tax loss was 0% for the nine months ended September 30, 2013 and for the year ended December 31, 2012 . During those periods, the benefit from income taxes was eliminated or reduced by the recognition of a valuation allowance. Reconciliation of the federal statutory income tax (benefit) rate to the effective income tax (benefit) rate is as follows: Nine months ended For the Year September 30, Ended December 2013 31, 2012 Federal statutory income tax rate 35.00 % 35.00 % Loss on Impairment - (1.48 ) Prior Year Adjustment 5.00 1.66 Other - (1.00 ) Valuation Allowance (40.00 ) (28.00 ) Purchase Accounting Adjustment - (6.18 ) Effective income tax rate - % - % Under current guidance, when evaluating a tax position for recognition and measurement, an entity shall presume that the tax position will be examined by the relevant taxing authority that has full knowledge of all relevant information. The interpretation adopts a benefit recognition model with a two-step approach, a more-likely-than-not threshold for recognition and derecognition, and a measurement attribute that is the greatest amount of benefit that is cumulatively greater than 50% likely of being realized. As of December 31, 2012 , we had no reserve for unrecognized tax benefits and there was no change during the first nine months of the year. We have capitalized all deductible start-up costs and have taken no material uncertain positions in our tax return which would require measurement and recognition under the guidance. Excluded from deferred tax assets is $1.5 million of excess stock compensation for which any benefit realized will be recorded to stockholders' equity. Additionally, Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code ("Section 382") imposes annual limitations on a corporation's ability to utilize its net operating losses ("NOLs") if it experiences an "ownership change." As a result of the MAC Acquisition, $7.3 million of NOLs are subject to annual limitations of $0.8 million through 2016, then $0.3 million . Any unused annual limitation may be carried forward up to 20 years. The NOLs will expire in years 2029 through 2033. As the Company has limited underwriting operations and premium generation and therefore has no history to provide a basis for reliable future income projections, a valuation allowance of $26.7 million and $8.2 million was recorded at September 30, 2013 and December 31, 2012 , respectively, to reflect the amount of the deferred taxes that may not be realized. 41 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The net deferred tax liability of $0.1 million as of September 30, 2013 is due to the acquisition of indefinite-lived intangibles in the MAC Acquisition for which a benefit has been reflected in the acquired net operating loss carry forwards. The deferred tax liability recorded in connection with the MAC Acquisition effectively increased goodwill that resulted from the transaction.Our financial statements reflect a valuation allowance with respect to our gross deferred tax assets less capitalized software. If the valuation reserve is reduced at some future date, we would recognize an income tax benefit for accounting purposes in the period in which the reserve is reduced. See "Note 10-Income Taxes." 42 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Results of Operations
Most Popular Stories
- Koch Brothers Step up Anti-Obamacare Campaign
- FDIC Accuses Big Banks of Fraud, Conspiracy
- Is Malaysian Airlines Flight 370 in Andaman Sea?
- Vybz Kartel Convicted of Murder
- Stocks Close Lower Ahead of Crimea Vote
- FDIC Sues Big Banks Over Rate Manipulation
- Ulta Shares Look Good on Strong Q4
- Jittery Investors Dumping Russian Stocks
- U.S. Consumer Sentiment Falls in Early March
- JLo Turns the Tables in New Vid: 'I Luh Ya Papi'