By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at Pain & Central Nervous System Week -- Research findings on Intercellular Junctions are discussed in a new report. According to news reporting out of Paris, France, by NewsRx editors, research stated, "The neuronal K/Cl transporterKCC2exports chloride ions and thereby influences the efficacy and polarity ofGABAsignaling in the brain. KCC2 is also critical for dendritic spine morphogenesis and the maintenance of glutamatergic transmission in cortical neurons."
Our news journalists obtained a quote from the research from National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), "Because KCC2 plays a pivotal role in the function of central synapses, it is of particular importance to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying its regulation. Here, we studied the impact of membrane diffusion and clustering on KCC2 function. KCC2 forms clusters in the vicinity of both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Using quantum-dot-based single-particle tracking on rat primary hippocampal neurons, we show that KCC2 is slowed down and confined at excitatory and inhibitory synapses compared with extrasynaptic regions. However, KCC2 escapes inhibitory synapses faster than excitatory synapses, reflecting stronger molecular constraints at the latter. Interfering with KCC2-actin interactions or inhibiting F-actin polymerization releases diffusion constraints on KCC2 at excitatory but not inhibitory synapses. Thus, F-actin constrains KCC2 diffusion at excitatory synapses, whereas KCC2 is confined at inhibitory synapses by a distinct mechanism. Finally, increased neuronal activity rapidly increases the diffusion coefficient and decreases the dwell time of KCC2 at excitatory synapses. This effect involves NMDAR activation, Ca2+ influx, KCC2 S940 dephosphorylation and calpain protease cleavage of KCC2 and is accompanied by reduced KCC2 clustering and ion transport function."
According to the news editors, the research concluded: "Thus, activity-dependent regulation of KCC2 lateral diffusion and clustering allows for a rapid regulation of chloride homeostasis in neurons."
For more information on this research see: Activity-Dependent Regulation of the K/Cl Transporter KCC2 Membrane Diffusion, Clustering, and Function in Hippocampal Neurons. Journal of Neuroscience, 2013;33(39):15488-15503. Journal of Neuroscience can be contacted at: Soc Neuroscience, 11 Dupont Circle, NW, Ste 500, Washington, DC 20036, USA. (Society for Neuroscience - www.sfn.org/; Journal of Neuroscience - www.sfn.org/index.aspx?pagename=JournalOfNeuroscience)
Our news journalists report that additional information may be obtained by contacting I. Chamma, CNRS, Ecole Normale Super, INSERM, Inst BiolU1024UMR 8197, F-75005 Paris, France. Additional authors for this research include M. Heubl, Q. Chevy, M. Renner, I. Moutkine, E. Eugene, J.C. Poncer and S. Levi (see also Intercellular Junctions).
Keywords for this news article include: Paris, France, Europe, Neurons, Synapses, Cell Membrane, Cellular Structures, Intercellular Junctions
Our reports deliver fact-based news of research and discoveries from around the world. Copyright 2013, NewsRx LLC