Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of submerged fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PJ69-4 on degradation of phytic acid and the oligosaccharides, raffinose and stachyose, in soybean meal (SBM). In Exp. 1, SBM fermented with S. cerevisiae strain PJ69-4 (diploid) (FSBM) was compared with SBM fermented with S. cerevisiae strain PJ69-4 transformed with the PHO5 gene (FSBMT). Compared with 15.3 g/kg in untreated SBM, FSBMT reduced phytic acid to below the minimum detectable level (MDL; 0.7 g/kg) in 3 samples and FSBM reduced phytic acid to below MDL in 2 samples and to 1.2 g/kg in a third. With regard to degradation of phytic acid, FSBMT was not superior to FSBM (P = 0.37 when using MDL as data points). In addition, total P values were not different between treatments (P = 0.12). In Exp. 2, FSBM was compared with nonfermented SBM (control). The FSBM increased total phosphorus from 6.4 ± 0.3 to 7.8 ± 0.1 g/kg (P < 0.05), and phytic acid was reduced from 15.6 ± 0.7 g/kg to below MDL (0.7 g/kg) in all samples. The FSBM also reduced both oligosaccharides to below MDL (1.0 g/kg) in all samples compared with 8.7 ± 1.4 g/kg of raffinose and 58.2 g/kg of stachyose in the control. Results of this study provided preliminary evidence that submerged fermentation of SBM with S. cerevisiae strain PJ69-4 can degrade phytic acid, raffinose, and stachyose to below detectable levels, which may provide nutritional benefits to monogastric animals, particularly weaned pigs.
Key words: phytate, phytic acid, oligosaccharide, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, submerged fermentation
myo-Inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexafcjsphosphate (trivial names IP6, InsP(,, phytic acid) is a phosphorylated, cyclic sugar alcohol. Phytic acid and its salts exist simultaneously in many seeds, and the combined form is commonly referred to as phytate. Phytate is important because it is the primary storage form of inositol and phosphate in seeds and plants. It accounts for approximately 50 to 80% of the total P in plant seeds (Ravindran et al., 1995) and 46 to 81% of the total P in soybean meal (SBM; Eeckhout and
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