By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at Malaria Weekly -- Data detailed on Mosquito-Borne Diseases have been presented. According to news reporting out of Storrs, Connecticut, by NewsRx editors, research stated, "A lack of defined correlates of immunity for malaria, combined with the inability to induce long-lived sterile immune responses in a human host, demonstrate a need for improved understanding of potentially protective immune mechanisms for enhanced vaccine efficacy. Protective sterile immunity (>90%) against the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP) has been achieved using a transgenically modified Plasmodium berghei sporozoite (Tg-Pb/PfCSP) and a self-assembling protein nanoparticle (SAPN) vaccine presenting CSP epitopes (PfCSP-SAPN)."
Our news journalists obtained a quote from the research from the University of Connecticut, "Here, several possible mechanisms involved in the independently protective humoral and cellular responses induced following SAPN immunization are described. Inbred mice were vaccinated with PfCSP-SAPN in PBS. Serum antibodies were harvested and effects on P. falciparum sporozoites mobility and integrity were examined using phase contrast microscopy. The functionality of SAPN-induced antibodies on inhibition of sporozoite invasion and growth within primary human hepatocytes was also examined. The internal processing of SAPN by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDDC), using organelle-specific, fluorescent-tagged antibody or gold-encapsulated SAPN, was observed using confocal or electron microscopy, respectively. The results of this work demonstrate that PfCSP-SAPN induces epitope-specific antibody titers, predominantly of the Th2 isotype IgG1, and that serum antibodies from PfCSP-SAPN-immunized mice appear to target P. falciparum sporozoites via the classical pathway of complement. This results in sporozoite death as indicated by cessation of motility and the circumsporozoite precipitation reaction. Moreover, PfCSP-SAPN-induced antibodies are able to inhibit wild-type P. falciparum sporozoite invasion and growth within cultured primary human hepatocytes. In addition, the observation that PfCSP-SAPN are processed (and presented) to the immune system by dendritic cells in a slow and continuous fashion via transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) recruitment to the early endosome (EE), and have partially delayed processing through the endoplasmic reticulum, has the potential to induce the long-lived, effector memory CD8(+) T-cells as described previously. This paper describes the examination of humoral and cellular immune mechanisms induced by PfCSP-SAPN vaccination which result in sterile host protection against a transgenic P. berghei malaria sporozoite expressing the P. falciparum CSP, and which significantly inhibits native P. falciparum sporozoites from invading and developing within cultured human hepatocytes."
According to the news editors, the research concluded: "These results may indicate the type and mode of action of protective antibodies needed to control P. falciparum sporozoites from infecting humans as well as a potential mechanism of induction of protective long-lived effector memory CD8(+) T-cells."
For more information on this research see: Mechanisms of protective immune responses induced by the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein-based, self-assembling protein nanoparticle vaccine. Malaria Journal, 2013;12():2-12. Malaria Journal can be contacted at: Biomed Central Ltd, 236 Grays Inn Rd, Floor 6, London WC1X 8HL, England. (BioMed Central - www.biomedcentral.com/; Malaria Journal - www.malariajournal.com)
Our news journalists report that additional information may be obtained by contacting M.E. McCoy, University of Connecticut, Dept. of Mol & Cell Biol, Storrs, CT 06269, United States. Additional authors for this research include H.E. Golden, T. Doll, Y.K. Yang, S.A.Kaba, P. Burkhard and D.E. Lanar (see also Mosquito-Borne Diseases).
Keywords for this news article include: Antibodies, Antigen-Presenting Cells, Storrs, Malaria, Oocysts, Vaccines, Immunology, Connecticut, CD Antigens, Hepatocytes, Sporozoites, CD8 Antigens, United States, Blood Proteins, Nanotechnology, Dendritic Cells, Differentiation, Human Parasites, Immunoglobulins, Epithelial Cells, Gastroenterology, Tropical Disease
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