By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at Genomics & Genetics Weekly -- Investigators discuss new findings in Apoptosis. According to news reporting originating from Boston, Massachusetts, by NewsRx correspondents, research stated, "Photocopiers emit nanoparticles with complex chemical composition. Short-term exposures to modest nanoparticle concentrations triggered upper airway inflammation and oxidative stress in healthy human volunteers in a recent study."
Our news editors obtained a quote from the research from Northeastern University, "To further understand the toxicological properties of copier-emitted nanoparticles, we studied in-vitro their ability to induce cytotoxicity, pro-inflammatory cytokine release, DNA damage, and apoptosis in relevant human cell lines. Three cell types were used: THP-1, primary human nasal-and small airway epithelial cells. Following collection in a large volume photocopy center, nanoparticles were extracted, dispersed and characterized in the cell culture medium. Cells were doped at 30, 100 and 300 mu g/mL administered doses for up to 24 hrs. Estimated dose delivered to cells, was similar to 10% and 22% of the administered dose at 6 and 24 hrs, respectively. Gene expression analysis of key biomarkers was performed using real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in THP-1 cells at 5 mu g nanoparticles/mL for 6-hr exposure for confirmation purposes. Multiple cytokines, GM-CSF, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, IFN gamma, MCP-1, TNF-alpha and VEGF, were significantly elevated in THP-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression analysis confirmed up-regulation of the TNF-alpha gene in THP-1 cells, consistent with cytokine findings. In both primary epithelial cells, cytokines IL-8, VEGF, EGF, IL-1 alpha, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and GM-CSF were significantly elevated. Apoptosis was induced in all cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, consistent with the significant up-regulation of key apoptosis-regulating genes P53 and Casp8 in THP-1 cells. No significant DNA damage was found at any concentration with the comet assay. Up-regulation of key DNA damage and repair genes, Ku70 and Rad51, were also observed in THP-1 cells, albeit not statistically significant. Significant up-regulation of the key gene HO1 for oxidative stress, implicates oxidative stress induced by nanoparticles. Copier-emitted nanoparticles induced the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, apoptosis and modest cytotoxicity but no DNA damage in all three-human cell lines. Taken together with gene expression data in THP-1 cells, we conclude that these nanoparticles are directly responsible for inflammation observed in human volunteers."
According to the news editors, the research concluded: "Further toxicological evaluations of these nanoparticles, including across different toner formulations, are warranted."
For more information on this research see: Evaluation of cytotoxic, genotoxic and inflammatory responses of nanoparticles from photocopiers in three human cell lines. Particle and Fibre Toxicology, 2013;10():1-22. Particle and Fibre Toxicology can be contacted at: Biomed Central Ltd, 236 Grays Inn Rd, Floor 6, London WC1X 8HL, England. (BioMed Central - www.biomedcentral.com/; Particle and Fibre Toxicology - www.particleandfibretoxicology.com)
The news editors report that additional information may be obtained by contacting M. Khatri, Northeastern Univ, Dept. of Civil & Environm Engn, Boston, MA 02115, United States. Additional authors for this research include D. Bello, A.K. Pal, J.M. Cohen, S. Woskie, T. Gassert, J.Q. Lan, A.Z. Gu, P. Demokritou and P. Gaines (see also Apoptosis).
Keywords for this news article include: Boston, Genetics, Apoptosis, Cytokines, DNA Damage, Proteomics, DNA Research, Nanoparticle, Massachusetts, United States, Nanotechnology, Machine Learning, Deoxyribonucleic Acid, Emerging Technologies, Gene Expression Analysis, North and Central America
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