As legal challenges to voter identification laws slowly wind their way through the courts, opponents of the controversial measures aren't just sitting around waiting for judicial relief.
They're hitting the streets in a grassroots effort to make sure affected voters have the documents they'll need to cast their ballots in November.
"When you put Americans' backs against the wall, we tend to rise and we tend to fight a little harder," said John Jordan, an NAACP elections consultant in Philadelphia, where a new state law requires voters to have government-issued photo identification documents.
From Pennsylvania to South Carolina to Florida, a loose network of civic, religious, labor and civil rights groups are working to find, educate and register voters who might not meet eligibility requirements under a spate of new Republican-backed laws that opponents say create new barriers to voting in the name of stopping fraud.
With the Nov. 6 election just weeks away, early voting under way in most states and only a few days remaining for voters to register, the get-out-the-vote efforts have taken on increasing urgency.
Whether it's knocking on doors, passing out fliers, collecting petition signatures or driving voters to get the proper documents, volunteers are working furiously to counter the new laws that disproportionately impact the elderly, poor and minority voters.
In Ohio, volunteers have traveled by van to nine cities, registering 3,500 black voters.
In Georgia, a group has helped more than 100 Atlanta homeless shelter residents get photo IDs in the last month.
And in 33 Florida counties, hundreds of black churches are moving their "souls to the polls" early voting campaign to Sunday, Oct. 28, after election laws eliminated Sunday voting on the weekend before Election Day and imposed other restrictions as well.
"We're asking churches if they will stand together and continue to make the statement that you will not suppress our vote," said Salandra Benton of Titusville, Fla., head of the Florida affiliate of the National Coalition on Black Civic Participation.
The federal courts already have weighed in, striking down a Texas voter ID law because it would have hurt minorities and placed "strict, unforgiving burdens on the poor." A South Carolina law is being challenged as well.
In Philadelphia, more than 140 organizations have formed the Pennsylvania Voter ID Coalition to help residents prepare for the new law, which is also under legal challenge.
When 53-year-old Gregory Jackson of Portland, Ore., heard that 750,000 Pennsylvanians may lack the required ID, he took a week of vacation and flew to Philadelphia to help with voter outreach.
An energy efficiency specialist, he spent a week stuffing information packets, attending voter education events, registering voters at a soup kitchen and soliciting volunteers for coalition events.
Jackson and an NAACP worker helped nearly 150 people register to vote, while making sure they had the proper identification. He left town with a hoarse voice but a sense of satisfaction.
"I talked to a lot of people," Jackson said. "There were a lot who just flat out said they weren't going to vote ... because their vote's not heard. And we turned a bunch of those people around and got them to register and got them to commit to getting their valid IDs."
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